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Home / Issues / № 2, 2014

Teaching science

REGIONAL ASPECTS OF THE STATE SOCIAL WELFARE
Beisengaliyev B.T.

The social welfare system includes state and regional levels and various social groups and categories of people. The social welfare basis at the state level is to ensure the functioning of the basic life-support systems and to maintain a minimum standard of living . While the mechanism of system formation at the regional level suggests its further development and specification taking into account regional peculiarities. The account of the regional dimension of social protection involves differentiation of the following types of regions:

  • regions with insufficient financial support and low economic and social potential;
  • regions with high unemployment rate;
  • the regions relating to the area of ​​high environmental risk;
  • regions with a predominance of the rural population.

The mechanism of social protection implemented at the level of various social groups and categories, provides protection and support:

  • first, the total population , ensuring the functioning of the main areas of life support;
  • second, realizing the rights of citizens in the area of ​​labor and employment;
  • third , socially vulnerable groups, providing support and assistance to those who in view their economic status cannot provide the required level of consumption.

During formation of regional social policy at the state level a strategy and ideology of social development form and, objectives and mechanisms of its legal regulation develop. The forms and methods of regional problems solution should be in competence of the regions and development of the social sphere should be clearly outlined. Regional social policy should be based on the following principles [1 ]:

  • provision of conditions for conservation and management of social resources of each region and the whole country;
  • identification of priority areas which require substantial investments;
  • search for costly or non-spending options to maintain the social sphere.

An abnormal regional difference in the level and quality of life is largely determined by economic, climatic, resource and infrastructural features of the region and serve as a basis for state "leveling" policy. One of the main objectives of this policy is "the leveling the social-economic development of regions", however one of the major challenges is the consistent approach of the standard of living and economic development in the worst (as per these parameters ) regions at least to the average level . An important factor in this case is the state promotion of the regions for self-development:

  • support for social mobility (assistance to relocate to more favorable areas);
  • state initiation to flow of capital investment to the former weak regions .

The main aspect of social policy at the present stage is the interaction and combination of state and regional programs , the establishment of optimal relations in the social development of the regions .There are three possible options of the region development:

  1. Develop and maintain advanced and wealthy regions while the rest may live at the expense of the first ones (for example - the US).
  2. Maintain an approximately the same level of life in all areas , adjusting their level of taxation , employment, quality of life (for example - Germany).
  3. Only support poor areas , the rich regions can develop on their own (for example - the Scandinavian countries) [2].

Pursuing a policy of regional development authorities at different levels of government should first align the development of the different regions of the country and create the required conditions for the social development, and then only proceed to the next level of regional management, i.e. manage the development of the social sphere.

In general, the function of government in the social sphere is to ensure social justice, which cannot be fully realized only through market relations. With regard to the social sphere services there is a need of the prerequisites of equal opportunities in their consumption. General availability of essential goods (achieved through providing them free of charge or a system of benefits) and the implementation of human rights such as the right to a certain standard of welfare should be provided.

In the broad spectrum of problems of state management of social sphere regional development it requires to identify a number of key issues, which include:

  • select of the objects to regulate;
  • identify sources of financial and material support to programs and enterprises, social institutions;
  • define criteria to evaluate the state of the social sphere;
  • develop methods and tools of management of development of the social sphere of the region;
  • regulate the relations of regional authority with state body.

Managing the social sphere of the region assumes management of social welfare in the region and managing the development of social infrastructure in the region. Thus, the management of the social sphere development are measures to optimize the system of social development, to create a social- economic, legal and institutional environment which accelerate free and full development of each person on the basis of improving system of public relations controlled by the government developed and implemented by various levels of authority.

The development of effective management measures of social development involves the use of an appropriate system of assessment and indicators of social sphere development. It is very important to use while evaluating the effectiveness of social policy the criteria which are adequate to its essence and content.

Such criteria are primarily the level and quality of life of the population. According to adopted by the U N concept of international standards of living, it is defined by the following concepts and indicators: health , food consumption , education, employment and working conditions , housing , social services , clothing , recreation and leisure, human rights [3].

Choice of management tools of RoK regions social development is complicated by paradoxical current status, which is that the development of market relations will inevitably lead to the emergence and strengthening of various social disproportion: stratification of the population by income and living standards , bankruptcy of enterprises, reduction of employment , etc.

The most important method for managing the development of the region social sphere in a market economy is the method of programming. Currently, it is recognized by the Government and is widely used in management practice. It should be noted that to make the program of development of the social sphere in region could be effectively implemented, it must be consistent with the amount of real resources, to have an adequate set of measures of controlling and regulatory impact according to each specific situation. Therefore, the management system of the social sphere development of the region should include the following components: generation, source, implementation and monitoring (Figure 1).

Generation block

Figure 1 - The management system of the region social sphere development

Generation block. Block elements in their complex that form the management system of the region social sphere development must enter into the legal mainstream the possibility, as well as acceptable forms and methods, directions and objects of state regulation of regional development. Among these elements are the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the laws governing the state relations and political system, the distribution of powers between levels of government, social rights and the relevant norms (social commitments), the budget process and the tax system , property relations, and its distribution as per regional level, the procedure of use , etc.

This unit should also include elements such as informational-analytic and forecasting-analytic provision to make appropriate decisions.

Source Block . The source block of state management system of region’s social sphere development should be the part of financial, property, natural and other sources of the state , which can be allocated to the target solution of the relevant tasks , as well as the part of non-state sources (funds from private investments, foreign loans , municipal land , etc), which legally can be spent for these purposes.

Implementation Block. This unit of management system of region’s social sphere development is diverse, structurally heterogeneous and includes dozens of specific actions, mechanisms and procedures authorized by Generation block and supported by the Source block . These can comprise qualitatively different measures. First of all, these are permanent or long-term political solutions, such as: giving the region a special status by establishing at a separate areas of special organizational and legal regimes. Perhaps the provision to the business entities a temporary tax benefits, giving them government contracts , etc.

Monitoring Block. Controlling block of the state system of regions social sphere development should include law-observance measures of total and continuous monitoring of the implementation of the state requirements, whether it be a large-scale program, transfer or situational decision supporting any city-forming object. In this case we are talking about how to control the decision-making, and their performance (as per volume indicators, as per timely release and bringing to the final recipients of resources allocated, by the result of their use etc).

Program-target method is one of the most common and effective methods of state regulation of the economy, used in most of the developed countries. This method involves the development of a plan based on the goals of economic development in the further search and identifies effective ways and means to achieve them, and resource support.

The developing process of a target program consists of the following parts: the program installation, research-and-engineering development (justification of methods of its implementation), structural design (forming sections, the construction of the executive program structure, the rationale for the program activities); source development (justification of the amount and sources required for the program implementation).



References:
1. State regulation of the regional economy: problems of theory and practice. Material of International Scientific Conference. Astana: Branch of State Enterprise "Institute of Economics" RoK Ministry of Education, 2010- p.792.

2. Kazakhstan model of socio-economic development: scientific bases of construction and implementation / Edited by M.B. Kenzheguzina Almaty: IE MES, 2005 – p. 368.

3. Abdykalikova G.N. Formation and development of the Kazakhstan social welfare system // Material of the International Scientific Conference "Social modernization is a new social policy" September 30, 2011 , Astana.



Bibliographic reference

Beisengaliyev B.T. REGIONAL ASPECTS OF THE STATE SOCIAL WELFARE. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2014. – № 2 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/457-24520 (20.08.2019).