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Home / Issues / № 2, 2014

Kondrashova N.V.
In 2013, was celebrated the 100th anniversary since the first kindergartens (hereafter - DS) on the territory of the Republic of Mordovia. The first pre-school institutions (hereinafter PI) for children of preschool age in the Mordovian land were organized in 1913 in the town of Kadoma and Temnikov, the main pupils which initially were children of different social layers[1-2].

The period of establishment of the network do in Mordovia at the beg. of the XX century marked by the organization of nurseries, playgrounds and DS, which can be divided into seasonal and permanent. Permanent PI treated the manger and the DS, which functioned during the whole calendar year in accordance with the established for them by the length of the workday and workweek. Among seasonal belonged do opened in rural areas to work for a short period, mainly in the summer season. In these years were marked by the dominance of seasonal network, hence the predominance of agriculture and seasonal employment to the majority of the female population.

In 30-50-s of the XX c. the species diversity PI increased. According to the degree of livability and areas of work PI do this period can be divided into exemplary, mass and primitives.

Exemplary PI do is indicative institutions, organized in every district or town that has a fairly solid for its time, the material and technical base, level of educational work aimed to help others do and make them familiar with their work experience.

Mass PI was considered to be institutions for children of early and preschool age with more or less satisfactory, compared with primitives and exemplary, material and technical base and the quality of educational work.

Institutions primitive was intended to care for pre-school children in the period of industrial, public and other employment parents, primarily mothers. They were characterized by poor material and economic base and limited to the functions they perform. Among the primitives were nurseries, nursery-shifting, a creche at the summer camps, summer playgrounds, most of which only operated in the midst of the spring-summer of agricultural works.

During the great Patriotic war in the 40-ies of XX century began to open sanatorium DS, Wellness villas and platforms. They played an important role in restoring and maintaining health needed in children due to the periodic change of the composition of pupils in each shift.

In the late 50's-60-ies of XX c.. the update preschool network through new institutions the kindergarten. Necessity of its creation was caused by several reasons. On the one hand, the study of peculiarities of development of children of early age helped to change the existed earlier opinions of the determining role of nutrition and sanitary conditions in child development (these issues were doing at that time, the Ministry of health), on the other - with the desire to create a consistent and continuous system of education of children of early and preschool age, meeting the objectives of further training in school.

At the turn of the XX and XXI centuries in Mordovia ripe for opening different types PI, which provides a wide range of educational services: 
- DS compensating kind or with a priority of one or several directions of development of pupils such as intellectual, physical, aesthetic and other, 

- DS combined type, which consists in various combinations General developing, compensating and Wellness group,

- DS compensating type with a priority of qualified correction of deviations in physical and mental development of children,

- the child development centers, i.e. institutions with the exercise of physical and mental development, correction and improvement of all pupils,
- educational complexes «Kindergarten-kindergarten-primary school».

And so on Currently, the strengthening of the variability of preschool education in the Republic promotes the opening in 2010, private DS, opening of the Center day care for children of preschool and younger school age on the basis of the  pedagogical Institute etc.

Summing up the above, it should be emphasized that the main indicators of successful development of pre-school network in Mordovia should be the versatility and diversity of species do; many DS operating taking into account the specifics of a multicultural region; optimal staffing groups, etc.

1. Kondrashova N. V. Century, the Main stages of development of the system of preschool education in Mordovia from 1913 to 2013 - M: Academy of Natural Sciences, 2014.- 168 p.

2. Kondrashova N. V. Creation, development and modernization of the system of preschool education of Mordovia from 1913 to 2013 //Humanities and education.- 2013.- № 4. - P. 44-50.

Bibliographic reference

Kondrashova N.V. THE MAIN TYPES OF PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS OF MORDOVIA TO 2013 BY 2013. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2014. – № 2 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/457-24543 (25.01.2020).