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Home / Issues / № 2, 2014

PROJECT ACTIVITY AS ONE OF THE EFFECTIVE FORMS OF THE ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION
Glazyrina N. L.

The Modern situation which has developed between society and the environment is complex and contradictory: on the one hand - the negative impact on the environment in the form of increasing human consumption of natural resources, on the other hand – the gravity of the situation is not considered. How to build educational process, what principles should be the basis of the educational model of ecological  education - these are the problematic issues that determine the formation of a specific model and methods of eco-educational activities of students. Needs a new approach to ecological education and training, the purpose of which should be The training of meaningful understanding of nature and respect for it.

To educate harmoniously developed, environmentally trained person that would be able to rely on the idea of co-evolution of nature and society, sustainable development of the biosphere – the task facing teachers[5, p. 29].

One of the forms of education most often discusses now is «design" or "project activity".

The method of projects isn't essentially new in the world pedagogy. It arose in the 20th years of last century in the USA. It called also a method of problems and connected with ideas of the humanistic direction in philosophy and education, developed by the American philosopher and teacher J. Dewey, and also his apprentice V. H. Kilpatrik. J. Dewey suggested to build training on an active basis, through expedient activity of the student, is being conformed to his personal interest in this knowledge.  Hence it was extremely important to show children their personal interest in the acquired knowledge that can and should be useful to them in life. It is based on the development of cognitive interests of students; skills  independently to construct their knowledge, to be versed in the information space, to show competence of the questions connected with a subject of the project; developments of critical thinking. [3, p. 56]

In accordance with the dominant method, which underlies execution of the project, there are research, creative, action-adventure-games, information and practice-oriented projects. [3, p. 62].

Themes of projects and studies must correspond to the age of the child. It is necessary to pay special attention to the subject formulation: it should be precisely defined.  It is necessary to remember that junior schoolchildren  write the scientific project (research work) and study a specific problem [4, p. 135]

This form of training has been successfully implemented by us in teaching an elective course for the development of ecological culture of the junior schoolchildren. It is an organized and purposeful activity which the result is the obtaining of new information.

For inclusion younger students in project activities, there are writing-books of projects on ecology. Children participate in the following ecological projects: "Investigation of spring signs", "Birds in my yard, My favorite plants. Dr.-Nature", "My family", «Live, the book!"(Form 1); "How the bread came to us to the table", "Mushroom’s basket", "Wild-growing plants of the city Park", "Unusual plants on Earth" (bread-tree, The Jabuticaba, the dragon tree , bottle tree, the tree of Vavona, Ceiba pentandra, African Tulip tree and others), "Kazakhstan is a multinational country" (form 2);"Visiting the phenomena of nature", "All professions are needed, all professions are important", " Our smaller Friends", "The Hunt for the kilowatts" (energy saving), " My family coat of arms " (Grade 3); "Protected areas of my region" [1, 2], "We study the spring phenomena in the nature", "Waste in the income, or Garbage and creativity", "Customs, traditions, rituals of Kazakh people", " Non-market relations, or the May bouquet". (4th class).

Example of the project «Non-market relations, or the May bouquet". The essence of the project lies in the fact that, in preparation for the Victory Day, young ecologists grow flowers (in the classroom and with the help of parents), May 9 in the morning to put on the open area not far from the eternal flame and allow veterans, elderly people age to take flower free to refer it to the monument to the fallen. The essence of the project is that, while preparing to the celebration of the Victory Day, young environmentalists grow flowers (in the classroom and on the cottages with the help of the parents), that in the morning of may 9 to stand at the open area near the Eternal flame and to provide an opportunity for the veterans of World War II to take a flower for free, to take them to the monument to the fallen. Near the flowers - the poster with the explanation of a carried-out action and an appeal to contemporaries to respect memory of the elder generation, to love the Homeland, to remember, what price the Victory got to our Fatherland in 1945th [6, p. 18].

The method of projects is always focused on independent activity of pupils – individual, pair or group which pupils carry out during a certain period of time.



References:
1. Bragina, T.M. Specially protected natural territories of Kazakhstan and perspectives of the organization of the ecological network (with the legislative framework in the area of especially protected natural territories)/ T.M. Bragin. - Kostanay: Kostan. The house of press, 2007. –164 p.

2. Reserves and National Parks in Kazakhstan. / Comp. AA Ivashchenko. Almaty: "Almatykitap Baspasy", 2009. – 284 p.

3. New teaching and information technology in the education system: Manual for students of ped. Universities and continuing training of teachers / E.S. Polat, M. Bukharkina, M.V.,Moses, A.E., Petrov; Ed. E.S., Polat. - Moscow: Publishing Center "Academy", 1999. – 224 p.

4. Pashevich, N.L. Research method in the development of ecological culture junior schoolchildren / N.L., Pashevich // Materials of Republican scientific - practical conference "Actual aspects of the formation and improvement of professional competencies of the teachers of pre-school and elementary education", devoted to the 50th anniversary of the opening of a speciality "pedagogy and methodology of primary education". - Part III. - Publishing of EKSU named S. Amanzholov. , Ust-Kamenogorsk, 2009. - p. 129 - 136.

5. Rotar, O.V., Iskljuci, A.A. Method of the projects as a way of development of ecological education // Successes of modern natural science. - 2005. - № 1 - p. 29-30 URL: www.rae.ru/use/?section=content&op=show_article&article_id= 7781608

6. Tsvetkova, I.V. Ecology for primary school. Games and projects. The popular guide for parents and teachers / I. Tsvetkova. - Yaroslavl: Academy of development, 1997. - 192 p.



Bibliographic reference

Glazyrina N. L. PROJECT ACTIVITY AS ONE OF THE EFFECTIVE FORMS OF THE ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2014. – № 2 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/457-24544 (09.12.2019).