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Home / Issues / № 2, 2014

Teaching science

SOME ASPECTS OF ORGANIZATION AND METHODOLOGY OF PALLIATIVE CARE
Abdulaeva P.Z., Magomedova M.A., Osmanova A.A.

        In the basis of development of palliative care at the present stage are the most advanced technologies of anesthesia, care and improve the quality of life of patients.

Palliative care today is an area of human activity, where are realized, first of all, team work methods based on inter - and multidisciplinary approaches.

 Palliative care at the present stage of its development is actively used in the technological process as achievements conventional medicine, acupuncture, physiotherapy, psychotherapy, and achievements related disciplines - integrative and complementary medicine, psychoonkologie, art and masterpie and other

Palliative care is an area of human and spiritual relations between people, which uses both a confessional and inter - and multi-confessional approaches and principles.

Palliative care is the case for those who have grasped the meaning of human life and completely took place as a person.

Topic physician relationship to the dying patient, of course, goes through the history of medicine. Since Hippocrates and up to the modern era hospices history attitudes of doctors to dying patients has an internal logic. In the book of Hippocrates "About art", in particular, discusses the purpose of medicine: "It is completely relieve patients from diseases, upsetting force of diseases, but to those already defeated by the disease, it is not stretches out his hands."

Medical custom possible to exclude from his practice problems dying patients prevailed before the New time, so in an embryonic form of the help to the dying was a matter of monasteries, and appeared in the middle ages, the first hospice.

The turn of medicine, so to speak - "face to the dying patient" has accurately predicted at the turn of the Renaissance and the New time English philosopher Francis bacon, which, incidentally, was the first to use the word "euthanasia". Discussing in his work "About the dignity and the exaggeration of Sciences" in 1605 goals of medicine, Flacon dwells upon the problem of the attitude to incurable patients: "I am quite convinced that the duty of the physician is not only to restore health and to alleviate the pain and suffering caused by the disease, and this not only when such pain relief how dangerous symptom of the disease may lead to recovery, but even in that case, when there is absolutely no hope for salvation and we can only make death more light and calm, because that euthanasia... is in itself is a great happiness."

       In 1996, starting to domestic journal of Palliative medicine and rehabilitation", which can be considered the event, equivalent to opening in 1990, the first hospice in Russia. In the second half of the 90-ies are held periodically scientific forums in which generalizes the experience of specialists working in the field of palliative medicine. First of all you should specify on the first all-Russian conference with international participation "Social and psychological problems of children's Oncology" (1997), the II Congress with international participation "Palliative medicine and rehabilitation in health care" (1998), international forum "Oncology at the turn of XX century, Opportunities and prospects" (1999), in the materials which reflect the various problems palliative care of cancer patients. A series of Russian-French seminars in palliative medicine at the Russian children's clinical hospital in 1999--2001 and the publication of materials of these workshops contributed significantly to the development of palliative care in our country.

Most fully the principles of modern palliative medicine used in hospices. The word "hospice" English origin and means alms-house, a house of peace. They existed in the middle ages in monasteries, where the dying people were able to find a last refuge. In 1905 in London opened a shelter St. Christopher, which focused on assistance to the dying. Since the late 40-ies in such shelters intensively accumulate scientific medical knowledge and practical experience to provide adequate, effective help to the dying in particular in the field of treatment of chronic pain, the use of psychotropic drugs, palliative chemotherapy and radiotherapy of oncological patients at the last stage, psychological assistance to families, considering its response to stress, the loss etc. Gradually revived the concept of "easy death", which is based not the principle of euthanasia ("mercy killing"), and a set of measures palliative care, which can make the patient himself to confront its physical destruction.

Hospice is not just a specialized hospitals for the dying, they are largely in denial, "simply hospital". That is why philosophical aspect here is almost more important than medical engineering. The original idea of the philosophy of hospice is very simple: the dying need of special assistance, he should and can help to pass through the border of life and death.



References:
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2. An elderly patient. M: Publishing house "Russian doctor". - 2007. - 104 C. Appendix to the magazine "the Medical sister".

3. Association of managers of health care facilities "head doctor". Publishing house "GRANT", 2007.

4. Kubler-Ross E. About death and dying. Translation from English. - Kiev: "Sofia", 2006.

5. Liptuga M.E. Ter-Minassian, Polyakov I.V., Zelensky T.M. Palliative care. QuickStart GIPP, "Art of Russia", St. Petersburg, 2008.

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Bibliographic reference

Abdulaeva P.Z., Magomedova M.A., Osmanova A.A. SOME ASPECTS OF ORGANIZATION AND METHODOLOGY OF PALLIATIVE CARE. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2014. – № 2 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/457-24545 (12.12.2019).