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Home / Issues / № 2, 2014

Abdulaeva P.Z., Magomedova M.A., Osmanova A.A.

In the modern world along with the growth of human capital increases the value of education as the most important factor of formation of a new quality to the economy and society. The development of professional education today is considered in the context of the processes occurring in the economy and in the labour market. The necessity of understanding of these processes has specific requirements for the training of specialists. The main objective of vocational education - training of qualified employee of the corresponding level and profile, competitive on the labour market, competent, responsible, fluent in their profession, able to effectively work on a speciality at the level of world standards, ready for continuous professional growth, social and professional mobility.

In this regard, a graduate professional educational institutions should be different skills of self-determination in the space of the labour market through the expression of their own positions, Amateur permission of professional tasks, critical thinking.

Competitive specialist should not only strive for self-realization in personal and professional aspects, but also to solve professional tasks from the perspective of creation of culture, according to personality type of thinking.  

Today the problem of values attracts more and more attention, because from what position will determine "the spirit of the specialist", depends on the preservation of the Russians as a political community of physically and culturally. In the works of A. Kiryakova, A. Asmolov and other essential attribute of the future specialist is not only professional, how much moral values, start manifesting in orientation to higher values, which define its common humane orientation as a person and a subject of activity. Particularly important are the issues of orientation of the future specialist in the world around him objective values, in itself, to build their professional and life prospects.

In social and scientific literature, the term "value" is used to "instructions on the human, social and cultural values of certain phenomena of reality" [5].

We define value as a multidimensional phenomenon, determined by the social circumstances that have clearly defined cultural sense of entering into positive and negative assessment of the world in General. The value is nothing more than a psychological and pedagogical education, which in compressed form is direct or indirect attitude to the environment and to himself.

The core contents of education in the professional training of specialist act from the position of social and cultural approach the values of culture. In our opinion, in the designation of the professional positions of the most important values such as humanism, freedom, self-development, creativity.

Justifying the value of humanism, it should be noted that a modern specialist distribute scientific and engineering conditionality and causality in the life of man and society, realizing the spiritual nature of these formations, which are impossible to come up with measures of technical feasibility and economic utility. Today there are a lot of aggressive, dangerous technologies to manipulate people. The value of the specified values in this process can be expressed by the words: "Why humanism? That man survived and others to survive helped...".

Viewing freedom as a value, we emphasize that "quality of life depends on the free choice of man" (ISATR). Freedom allows the person to think, to act according to their aims and intentions. The need for freedom is deeply embedded in human nature, without it a person is not able to act on the basis of their values and not under duress. Freedom allows targeting own life path, you can choose between alternatives, in accordance with the personal claims. Due to the acquisition of freedom and existence choice of professional guidelines, a person can stand in the way of its development. From these positions, in professional education relevant is not the acquisition of knowledge as such, but also the development of man as the subject of his own life, his own profession with knowledge. The establishment of a specialist is impossible without self-development as an active process, but the reason of man, including professional activity is freedom. Free making the choice, the person responsible for it. Therefore and professional self-development driven by the awareness of free choice, the man responsible for the choice and the result of its self-creation in the profession. Thus, in modern society increasingly popular specialist, capable of self-development. The benchmark is the personality that determines the prospects of its development, uses its own intellectual, emotional and other reserves, seeking a free choice, creative activity. Creativity is also one of the values that defines the position of modern specialists. To create means to create, to do, but to do new, original, thereby obtain unique results. In General, creativity expresses a special kind of life the ability, the power of life, the meaning of which is the creation of new. However, you should understand that a person can build not only the good, to serve not only human, but inhuman. Therefore, one of the main goals of creativity-value - creating wealth in the context of human culture that enhance the positive opportunities of the person. This value creates a culture of high level, which is inseparable from morality.

"The core of the core" of the position of specialist, in the end, it turns out that the I. Kant called the moral law within me" and directly connected with the realization of its existence.

All the above allows to state that the necessary revisions of the goals, objectives, content and methods of professional education. Methodological basis of this preparation may be a socio-cultural approach (I. Kuzmin). Sociocultural approach implies the necessity of formation of value and on its basis the responsible professional position of the future specialist to the world, as a basis for "entry" into the culture. In the aspect of this approach is necessary to organize such educational process, to the formation of the core of the professional positions of the future expert proceeded in the context of human culture with specific cultural conditions of human activity; determination of the content of education at the level of the content of Russian culture.

Socio-cultural approach is based on the doctrine of values (axiology) and due to objective connection between man and the culture as a system of values. This approach is based on the idea that there is a cultural space that bring together individuals and society. Cultural space is a factor of social life organization, providing the support person (A.P. Sadkin and others). As experience shows, established in a number of schools of Russia, such value space can be arranged in professional education.

Implementation approaches in professional education allows to consider the preparation of a specialist from the perspective of values of Russian culture, helps to achieve a new understanding of the quality of education, which includes not only the absorption of subject content, the development of communication, management competencies, but also the development of values and moral spheres of the future specialist.

When preparing future specialists in the framework of professional education it is important to create conditions for the formation of values of the kernel professional position of the individual.  While education can act as one of the leading factors in the formation of moral, which would help the learner fit harmoniously into the context of culture. A future specialist included in culture, attached to the culture through activity - educational, caseprofessional.

The introduction of new accents in preparing students requires clarification of aspects, based on the ideas of social and cultural approach.

From the position of social and cultural approach the mission of vocational education is the construction of identity of the personality of the future specialist as a citizen of their country.  Then the process of professional preparation of future specialists it is necessary to enrich the organizational-methodical means and programmes, based on tradition and above the values of culture.

To update the values of culture is possible, in our opinion, through the interpretation of the exploring humanitarian content.

The necessity of addressing the interpretation of humanitarian content is proved, above all, the increasing role in modern society, personal knowledge, as it allows individuals to update their own meanings. In vocational education, it is important to interpret knowledge about man and his life, relevant ecological, economic and social problems, but possible options to solve these problems it is necessary to define in the context of cultural values, in the context of the values of humanism, self-development, creativity and freedom. It was then that the knowledge will give the future expert a possibility to be guided not only in the variety of the world, but also to find social and cultural landmarks, defining their place in it.

The interpretation of the contents assumes that the social activity of the future specialists is manifested, in particular, in the creation of new values and meanings as a kind of socially and culturally important product.

Offering a learner to decide in the multiplicity of meanings phenomenon, object, activity, education promotes the development of professional identity of the future specialist.

The interpretation offered humanitarian knowledge can be designed to uncover the social essence of a phenomenon, considering the conditions under which it might occur, of the reasons for the emergence and existence of the phenomenon. Considering the knowledge in this context, the student masters the methods of emotional disclosure issues subject content, paying attention vital and practical communication.

Based on research Y.A Ivanova [1], we note that knowledge must meet certain conditions: the software with the proposed content of the training the professional activities of the future expert, associated with the identification of the value aspects of the material; the social importance of the affected system tasks questions.

Obviously, humanitarian knowledge has a certain activating the potential to present options to its interpretation in the context of cultural values. To use this potential, should be followed when working with the task of some of the steps:

- access to sources that contain a variety of social and cultural information;

- to Express thought, evaluation of the meaning and socio-cultural significance of different ideas, problems under study;

- to define a new vision of the subject area, to introduce students to the field of culture.

Thus, the actualization of the ideas of social and cultural approach allows to solve the issues of introduction to the cultural values in a particular professional area, as well as contributes to the formation of the personality of the future specialist as a citizen, a man of culture and of the subject of cultural activities. However, it should be noted that the introduction of the ideas of social and cultural approach in the practice of professional education, requires a deeper analysis and careful study.

1. Ivanova Y.A Didactic conditions of use pedagogical problems in the study of General and special subjects in higher establishments. - Vologograd, 2007.

2. Kamkin A.V., Kuzmin I.A. Origins// Istolkovanie. 1,2. - 2007.

3. Nikandrov / Spiritual values and education in modern Russia// Pedagogy. - 2009.- №9.

4. V.A. Petrovsky Personality psychology. Rostov - on/A., 2006.

5. Ciacova GI Introduction to the pedagogical axiology.- M., 2003.

Bibliographic reference

URL: www.science-sd.com/457-24547 (12.12.2019).