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Home / Issues / № 2, 2014

Teaching science

COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE: FACTORS OF EFFICIENT DEVELOPMENT
Novikova I.Yu.
 

Today a qualitatively new perspective education space is being created in Russia, and the aim of higher education is graduates’ ability to act independently in different professional and problematic situations to achieve success within the Common Space of Science and Education.

Independence, not being an innate trait, is formed in the process of a person’s growth when he or she is involved in certain activities. As one of the top qualities of a personality, independence is viewed as the ability to set a goal and to achieve it systematically and consistently. Independence becomes apparent when a person is responsible for own actions, full of initiative and acts consciously both in familiar circumstances and unusual conditions which often require new non-standard solutions.

While studying at a higher educational institution, independence mainly develops through educational activities when a person acquires knowledge, tries to understand and adopt it. In fact the knowledge and experience gained by the mankind are not just adopted; they become a person’s individual discovery through a series of activities involving various difficulties. While overcoming the difficulties, a person becomes more and more independent in cognition and creative.

As for independence in cognition (cognitive independence), it is an integrative quality of a personality due to the stable interest in cognitive activities. It is realized in the search caused by the constant need to acquire knowledge and improve the skills to make the reality better.

As a phenomenon cognitive independence undergoes several factors that influence its efficient development. The first factor is students’ activity in the training process.  совершенствование

Students’ activity is known to bу realized through their searching for knowledge and perfecting the efficient modes of activity; it is associated with the mobilized willpower to achieve the educational goals. The progress in cognition and in studies is impossible without motivation and a positive attitude towards training. Students are to have the desire to learn and discover the new and unknown for them, i.e. a stable cognitive interest as an important motive, significantly enhancing the process of learning. This interest is formed through the content area of activity and relations between the participants in the interaction. To strengthen the students’ interest a particular attention should be paid to the organization of training activities: there are various organization forms which should be used within a lesson.

The second factor influencing the efficient development of cognitive independence is successful students’ adaptation to the conditions of a higher educational establishment.

Social adaptation happens through a person’s accustoming to certain activities while adopting the social experience of the environment to which a person belongs. The first year students adapt to new conditions of life and work in a higher educational establishment.

The success of the educational process also depends on the teacher’s personality, relationships with the students and the skills (the level of pedagogical excellence). The main teacher’s task along with fostering learning is to bring out the best in students through joint activities and interaction. The teacher is to have not only the profound subject knowledge and erudition, but also pedagogical skills, which mean the high level of general culture and technological competence, the ability to build relationships and foster the necessary qualities to transform a student from a teaching object into a searcher.

Efficient development of cognitive independence depends on active intellectual interaction between students and their teacher. Thus, the level of pedagogical excellence is the third factor to of the efficient development of students’ cognitive independence. The next important ones are the choice of an approach to present the content of a subject, to facilitate training activities and a complex of pedagogical (teaching) techniques and technologies.

Today higher education needs to develop and implement educational technologies aimed at the efficient development of students' cognitive independence. They are to be based on technologies of differentiated and individualized training, active training methods and the pedagogy of cooperation.

Technologies of differentiated and individualized training aim at due adaptation of educational material to the individual abilities of each student to develop a creative personality.

Active training methods that stimulate students’ cognitive activities are primarily based on the dialogue and interaction as a free exchange of views to solve a particular problem. Active training methods can intensify the process of understanding, learning and creative approach to knowledge application. One of them is a problematic training method based on questions that create a problematic situation to guide students consistently to the solution. Thus, students take interest in knowledge and are involved in cognitive activities which develop their independent and searching thinking.

To create a comfortable microclimate, the teacher should cultivate the situation of success for students to establish and maintain the contact with them, to show tolerance and prevent negative and stressful moments within the pedagogy of cooperation.

Thus, the factors of the efficient development of students’ cognitive independence in the training process at a higher educational establishment are: students’ activity, their successful adaptation to new circumstances, a complex of due approaches to present the content of training, educational technologies, the pedagogy of cooperation and the level of the teacher’s pedagogical excellence.



Bibliographic reference

Novikova I.Yu. COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE: FACTORS OF EFFICIENT DEVELOPMENT . International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2014. – № 2 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/457-24577 (24.08.2019).