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Home / Issues / № 2, 2014

Teaching science

Modern approaches the organization of educational activities agricultural schools in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)
Gabriel M. Fedorov

 Since 2008, with the approbation and implementation of federal state educational standards (hereinafter - GEF) rural school in the content of education has completely passed to the curriculum and programs of urban schools, resulting in individual subjects, with few exceptions, have ceased to reflect the specific problems of rural life, rural labor. There has been a rejection of the family from the school, disrupting the sense of unity of rural schools and rural family, the village and its inhabitants.

         According to the results of testing of the GEF in 2011, the federal state educational standard of general education changes, additions, reflecting the particular education, development and socialization of children on the basis of moral and spiritual values ​​of the peoples of the Russian Federation.

         In this regard, rural schools got a "second wind" for the development of variable school variativnogo student learning with the creation of the necessary conditions aimed at the education of the future owner of the land of their village, the village is responsible, the current social and economic condition of the village and follow the traditions of the rural way of life. Therefore, the principles of shaping the content of school education in agricultural schools may be "the principle of social and economic feasibility of and the need for child labor, its involvement in the production activity, the principle of communication work with science" [1, p 193].

Under these conditions, particularly a vital urgency and demand conditions in the village, the village acquire agricultural schools. This is directly related to the socio-economic development of the village, the village, its socio-cultural structure, customs and traditions, agricultural activities and should be functionally adapted to local conditions. No creative modernization of school education is unthinkable without the support of their age-old traditions. Ignoring these traditions leads to the degradation of society and humans [2, C.13].

      The first agricultural schools in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) was formed in the 90s under the first President of Yakutia Mikhail Nikolayev. In 2003, with the support of the President of the Republic Vyacheslav Shtyrov to improve education in this area jointly by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Agriculture was established Union agricultural schools of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

          According to the 2013-2014 school year in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), there are 65 agricultural schools, taking into account the features of the agro-industrial areas. Thus, agricultural schools are divided into five zones: Western, Viluiskaya, Central, South Yakutia, northern and Arctic.

          In the western zone there are 10 agricultural schools in three districts: Olekminsky - 3 Suntarsky - 3 Nyurbinsk - 4 Directions secondary schools in the district are Olekminsky agriculture crop. In Suntarsky ulus mainly engaged in animal husbandry and crop production. In Nyurbinsk ulus engaged in animal husbandry, horse breeding and crop production.

          In Vilyuiskaya agro zone has 6 agricultural schools in three districts: Vilyusky, Verkhnevilyuisk and Kobjajsky. The main activities of these schools is animal husbandry, fisheries, agriculture, crop production.

          In Central agro-industrial zone operates 27 schools in 8 districts: Khangalassky, Namsky, Amginsky, Megino-Kangalassky, Ust-Aldan, Tattinsky, Churapchinsky, Mountain and the city of Yakutsk. The main direction of these schools - breeding, farming, crop production.

          In the South Yakutian agro zone operates 1 agricultural schools Hastyrskom naslega Aldan region.

         According to the 2012-2013 school year in the northern Arctic and agro-industrial zone there are 17 agricultural schools 8 districts of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). In Tomponsky area has 2 agricultural schools engaged in animal husbandry and crop production. In the area of Upper acts 1 Arylahskom naslega agricultural schools. In Srednekolymskiy District works Aleko Kyuelskaya agricultural schools. The main focus of this school is to horse breeding. In Verkhoyansk district has one agricultural schools in Borulahskom naslega and its main activities - breeding, horse breeding, farming, crop production. In Ust-Maya area has 4 agricultural schools. The main direction of the agricultural schools - agriculture, crops and livestock. In the area there are 2 Moma agricultural schools. These schools are engaged in reindeer breeding, horse breeding and crop production. In Oleneksky district Eyikskom naslega working agricultural schools and engaged in reindeer herding. In Abyisky area are two agricultural schools and Abyisky Urasalahskom naslega. The main activities are fishing and agricultural schools crop. And also in Allaikhovsky, Anabar, Bulun and Kobjajsky areas operate agricultural schools. Line of action of these schools - herding and fishing. This shows that in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) (hereinafter - the RS (Y)) in places of traditional residence and economic activities of indigenous peoples of the North are 17 agricultural schools which their activities are traditional activities: reindeer herding, fishing, hunting, horse breeding, foraging , cattle ranching and farming.

A characteristic feature of the agricultural schools of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is to obtain a plot of land, lakes, flooded pit in the manner prescribed by federal law; agricultural machinery, greenhouses, livestock livestock and other property, classroom load, extracurricular load and license on the training requirements for educational programs: basic school grades 5-9 allocated 2 hours for the teaching load of the school component, a high school 2 subjects at profile level (rough plan Agrotechnological profile). In addition, without the hours of elective courses provided by Agriculture technology direction and practice.

         Plots, pond, flooded pit, as mentioned above, are assigned to the agricultural schools in the manner prescribed by federal law with the permission of local authorities - and on the free lands of the state fund under the contract. One of the regulatory frameworks Republican nomination is approximate position of part-time farm educational institutions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) (Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) March 24, 2009 N 107). On the basis of this provision, agricultural schools collaboration work with rural production cooperatives. Each agricultural schools in accordance with the legislation may have on the operational management of agricultural machinery, greenhouses, livestock livestock and other assets to provide educational activities provided by the charter agricultural schools. In addition, each school should make a list of agricultural machinery, fixed land, grasslands, farmland, pastures, sayylyki, greenhouse space and other fixed on the basis of the regulatory framework of the Model Regulations on the part-time farm educational institutions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) (Government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia ) March 24, 2009 N 107).

Analysis of regional experience in agricultural schools of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) describes that educational programs have classroom and extracurricular load, as well as a license to conduct training and initial vocational training of agricultural profile, for example, the development of the profession "tractor-driver", "grower", "operator milking machine "," welder "," seamstress "and others. Regulatory framework of vocational training students agricultural schools are approximate position on the educational institution Agrotechnological Profile (agricultural schools) of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) (Government of Sakha (Yakutia) March 24, 2009 N 107), "The list of professions (specialties), on which the training in educational institutions "(Letter to the MES of Russia June 21, 2006 N 03-1508).

  Exemplary curriculum for educational institutions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is the regulatory framework, implementing training programs (dual training) at the senior level of education (Ministry of Education of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) on 5.06.2009 №01-08 / 804).

Currently, agricultural schools, all activities of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) is justified on the basis of the regulatory PMU of Sakha (Yakutia) in 2005, PMU of the Russian Federation in 2004

Summarizing the above existing basic educational programs agrotechnological educational institutions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) distinguish their features:

 classroom load;

 extracurricular load;

 license to conduct training;

 requirements for the educational program:

- For basic schools in grades 5-9 allocated 2 hours for teaching load of school component;

- In high school 2 subjects at profile level (rough plan Agrotechnological profile);

• Elective courses in agro-technology direction, without specifying the hours;

• Manufacturing Practice.

      This shows that the curriculum for educational institutions agrotechnological Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is implemented at the state educational standards (2004, 2005.), And requires a significant change in the content of education in compliance with the GEF General Education (2011).

         In this regard, the November 2011 delegation FGBNU "Institute of National Schools of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)" visited Horobutskuyu secondary school named D.Taasa Megino Kangalassky-ulus to get acquainted with the work of agricultural schools in the current socio-cultural conditions. Agricultural schools to discuss pressing issues were identified priorities Agrotechnological education and to plan future work between the Institute of National Schools of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) and Horobutskoy Secondary School, signed an agreement on joint activities to establish internship site FGBNU "Institute of National Schools of Sakha (Yakutia)" on the development of teaching kits (CMD) for agricultural schools in accordance with the requirements of the GEF.

         In 2011, the agricultural schools in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) to organize educational activities in the conditions of implementation of the GEF FGBNU "National Institute of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)" on the basis of MBOU Horobutskoy secondary school named after Dmitry TAAS Megino Kangalassky ulus-established internship platform for management innovation activities in the agricultural schools of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

         As part of the August meeting of educators of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) "Modernization of Education for Children" 23 August 2012 in the enlarged meeting of the Union of agricultural schools leading researcher FGBNU "Institute of National Schools of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)" GM Fedorov spoke about the trends of development of the teaching kit in agricultural schools in the conditions of realization of the GEF. It was the highlight features of the basic educational program agrotechnological educational institutions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Firstly, the basic educational program of educational institutions agroprofilirovannym direction of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) should be based on innovative learning technologies, ie aimed at the student's own, on its activities. Secondly, the content of the basic educational program should take into account regional and ethno-cultural features (climate, natural landscapes, lifestyles, types of traditional economic activities, traditional knowledge). Third, the basic educational program should form the personality, and a meta-subject performance.

These trends to determine the need to develop teaching materials for agricultural schools of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). In FGBNU "Institute of National Schools of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)" created CMD "traditional economy" for grades 1-4 in extracurricular activities in compliance with the GEF.

       CMD "traditional economy" as the starting point and the result of the organization of educational activities in the agricultural schools, can be the basis of formation of practical, research and project activities of elementary school students in the subjects "The world around us", "Mathematics", "technology", "Native (Yakut) literature, "" The Yakut language "," Russian "and provides enhanced scientific and methodological activities of teachers [3, pp 2068-2074].

        Contents CMD "traditional economy" reflects the climate, landscape, natural features, lifestyle, traditional economy of the indigenous population. CMD is the account of the peculiarities of ethno-psychological characteristics of children, forms, ways of working that ensure the formation of a meta-specific performance with practical problem solving, research and project activities.

        Over the 2012-2013 period. internship site FGBNU "Institute of National Schools of Sakha (Yakutia)" on the basis of MBOU Horobutskoy secondary school in the March 26, 2012 held an interregional seminar workshop on the organization of educational activities agricultural schools in the conditions of realization of the GEF with 5 schools Nyurbinsky Ulus 27 March 2012, rendered scientific and methodological assistance on the issue of the organization of educational activities in the agricultural schools with. Kyyy. MBOU Tyarasinskaya School Tatta region in the April 13 2013 in Moma ulus MBOU Indigirka School, MBOU Sobolohskaya School, MBOU Moma Moma district elementary school held a seminar on the problems of the organization of educational activities in the agricultural schools located in places of traditional residence and economic activities of indigenous peoples. A seminar-workshop on the organization of educational activities in the agricultural schools in the Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) FV Gabysheva in 17.04.2013.

        Job internship sites were covered at the regional, national and international level in scientific and practical conferences, leading scientific journals incoming Register WAC with RISC and imfakt Factor "Education for pupils", "Modern problems of science and education", "Fundamental Research", "International Journal of applied and fundamental research. "

In the context of rural agricultural schools can not be built outside the structure and the lifestyle of the villagers themselves. The inhabitants of the village, the village - it's the breeding of cattle, horse breeding, hunting, agriculture, the inhabitants of the northern and arctic regions of reindeer herding, fishing and hunting.

         Given the above features are now broaden the range of activities internship site FGBNU "Institute of National Schools of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

A purposeful and systematic work in four agro-industrial areas: the north - Moma ulus, central - Khangalassky region, Lena-AMGA - Megino-Kangalassky and Churapcha region, Viluiskaya - Nyurbinsk ulus. Developed and are being developed CMD "traditional economy" for grades 1-4, "Ecology of Yakutia" for grades 5-9, terminological dictionaries on reindeer herding, hunting.

Thus, to create a new school type of school - agricultural schools should outline the scientific and methodological approaches for the construction of the model according to the requirements of modern schooling. Firstly, the conversion of the secondary schools in agricultural schools - a social and cultural center of the village on the basis of spiritual and moral development, education and socialization of children, the formation of students' basic national values ​​as patriotism, social solidarity, citizenship, family, work and creativity, nature and humanity, and also certain competencies needed in everyday life and in all situations (culture-approach). Second, the focus of educational activities on traditional economic activities, the activities of the student, which laid the foundations initial agricultural knowledge, caring and respect for nature, the earth, the work and active participation in social and economic development in rural areas (system-activity approach). Third, the implementation of an integrative approach to the lessons that are organized, extracurricular and curricular activities in agricultural schools, directed the study of the relationship of nature, man, society, scientific, agricultural, environmental knowledge, labor, the establishment of interdisciplinary connections and the formation of personality, and a meta-subject performance.

Thus, the main activity of agricultural schools aimed at life-oriented training students for the proper use of the knowledge and skills for the introduction of traditional economic activities and competitive in the labor market, able to adapt to all situations. Modern agricultural schools - a connection with life, the vital functions of the individual child, his taskmgr, extracurricular and extracurricular activities.

 


 



References:
1. Pedagogy. Textbook for students of pedagogical universities and teacher training colleges. Ed. PI Pidkasistogo. Moscow, Russian pedagogical Agency, 1996 S193

2. Arashtaev E.N. Ethnopedagogical factors of education of the younger generation at the present stage // Pedagogy love. Proceedings of the international scientific-practical conference "Ethnopedagogical heritage of the peoples of Siberia and Central Asia," July 8-12, 2009 / under scientific. Ed. AS Schaal, GD Sund - Kyzyl: Publishing and printing department "Bilig" Institute of the National School. - 2009. C.13

3. Fedorov G.M. Features of the organization of educational activities in the agricultural schools located in places of traditional residence and economic activities of the indigenous peoples of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) Fundamental research // number 10 for 2013 (Part 9). S. 2068-2074



Bibliographic reference

Gabriel M. Fedorov Modern approaches the organization of educational activities agricultural schools in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) . International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2014. – № 2 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/457-24616 (21.08.2019).