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Home / Issues / № 2, 2014

Teaching science

The substantial essence and the main destination of the subject "Physical training"
Lukyanenko V.P.

The importance of the deep substantial analysis of this concept and the phenomenon designated by it is caused by the most important role of the subject "Physical training" is the solution of problems of physical training of younger generations and societies as a whole.  Besides, despite keen interest in it, almost centenary history of systematic teaching of this subject and different searches of the answer to a question of its essence, unfortunately didn’t lead to the desirable results. 

Despite almost centenary history of systematic teaching of this subject in our country, actually for the present there are no answers to questions:  "What is this – "the subject "Physical training"?  For the sake of what does it exist?  In what an essence of that final effect which has to be received as a result of its teaching?  ".  At the same time, only after the answer to them it is possible to pass to search of answers to the questions connected with the definition of its essence and the contents.

First authors order to school physical training the recreational and hygienic function                                                                                                                                                                                                                          many others see an essence of these functions in assistance to providing high level of the general education in the field of physical culture. Along with such positions there is an opinion that the subject "Physical training" never had the concrete and unambiguously formulated idea which absence deprives of it the stable contents.

 Considerable dispersion of opinions on a case in point, their polarity and, often, insufficient persuasiveness, in my opinion, is caused by the following reasons:

• mixture of concepts: "Physical training of school students", "The general sports education", "Subject "Physical training";

• insufficient  of ideas of limits of the maintenance of this subject;

• exclusive width, variety of functions attributed to it, against absence of due consideration to their classification, differentiation, etc.

• unsystematic character, fragmentariness of discussion of single questions against considerable complexity and diversity of a subject of discussion.

The subject "Physical training" is having the main task only physical preparation that is unfortunately characteristic for current state ideas of the main content of study practically loses the socio-cultural space and, thereby, it is forced out on the periphery of actually cultural human activity. Therefore its reforming has to assume obligatory change of its social orientation from mechanical development by pupils set "motive samples" and providing a certain physical quality, on process of active development of the personality engaged, achievement by them of sports education and readiness to carry out independent sports activity.

The theory-analytical research of essence of the subject "Physical culture" conducted by the author is allowed to reveal minimum necessary circle of actions for its establishment. It is necessary to refer to that first of all the following actions:    

• to reveal those signs of a subject which are the general for all subjects of the general education, that is to present the subject "Physical training" from positions of a general education subject matter;

• to define the most characteristic signs of a subject as basic basis of system of physical training of studying youth;

• to define structure of functions of a subject and to distinguish dominating from them;

• to formulate a specific goal of the subject "Physical training" reflecting specific features of this form, its leading role, in the general system of physical training of studying youth;

• to define structure and specifics of the maintenance of a subject;

• to allocate a leading component of the contents proceeding from a priority of an educational orientation;

• to specify the concept "educational orientation" of teaching of the subject "Physical training";

• to develop classification of types of studies according to features of the maintenance of the general education in the field of physical culture;

• to formulate exact consistent definition of the  concept "the subject "Physical training", characterizing it as the full-fledged general education subject matter, the integral component of system of the general education as a whole, all the essence corresponding to essence and mission of this system.

The materials which are presented in this work allow us to make a certain contribution to the solution of the reasonable formulation of the basic concept considered in this work.

First of all it is necessary to address to sources. To have opportunity to form the person, it is necessary to have the corresponding material for this purpose. Embodiment of such material is, as we know, the world. However the person can't seize the whole world as a whole therefore it has to be reduced and presented in certain concrete materials. One of such reduced representations of the world is carried out in the form of education subjects by means of which evident idea of the world on what education is based and develops is based.

Whether there is a formation of this or that subject matter and whether it joins in the curriculum of establishments of education depends on what educational value admits behind its object.   It is necessary to emphasize especially that function of the subject included in structure of the content of education, is defined by specifics which are allocated for it in realization of overall objectives of education. 

 Therefore the subject "Physical training" it’s orientation, it’s purpose, it’s content and the form of the organization have to be brought not only out of specifics of the subject (as it takes place now), and to be caused first of all specifics of functions of the general education, with the obligatory account and specifics of this discipline, but not in itself, and as element of its structure.

 So, in the broadest sense "Subject" is one of the reduced representations of the world.  According to the definition containing in "The pedagogical encyclopedia", the subject of school education is meant "… didactically as reasonable system of knowledge, the skills which have been selected from the relevant branches of knowledge, arts or cultures".  This knowledge is necessary for their expedient use in the course of self-education, self-improvement throughout all individual life.

Therefore, "The subject "Physical training" is the general education discipline representing didactically reasonable system of knowledge, the skills which have been selected from the branch "Physical training", urged to promote their development for the purpose of systematic use in the course of physical self-improvement throughout all individual human life.

In my opinion, such understanding of the essence of this subject in the greatest measure corresponds to an essence and mission both the general education in the field of physical training and all education system as a whole.

Bibliographic reference

Lukyanenko V.P. The substantial essence and the main destination of the subject "Physical training" . International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2014. – № 2 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/457-24619 (21.08.2019).