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Home / Issues / № 2, 2014

Economics

The core parameters and issues of small innovation business development in RF
Doroshenko Y.A., Somina I.V., Ospishchev P.I.
One of the key goals of Innovation development strategy of Russian Federation till 2020 – is increasing of business’s innovative activity and acceleration of small innovative companies (startups) establishment. In that case the significant attention should be paid to small innovative enterprises (SIE). By possessing of high-qualified personnel, market and technological flexibility, ability to take high risks, they often achieve rather huge successes in development and mastering of drastic new products and technologies than big business.

On basis of official statistics material [2], let’s conduct analysis of core parameters of innovative activity in small entrepreneurship sector of Russia. We should mention that in Russia’s practice the statistic research of innovative activity of small entrepreneurship subjects (except micro-companies)is conducted according to form №2 –SE (small enterprises)«Data about technological innovations of small enterprise» once per two years. Let’s evaluate the main outcomes of this research.

In general, the indicator of unit weight of small enterprises, which were implementing technological innovations in Russia during 2007-2013 years was being characterized by unstable dynamic and was varying in range of 4,1 – 5,1% (pic.1), which is approximately 2 times less than the analogue indicator of big and medium business in RF (9,3-9,9%) and 10 times less in level of innovative activity of enterprises in EU.

Pic.1. Innovative activity of small entrepreneurship subjects in Russia,%

Among Russian regions in 2013, Altai (13%), Kursk (12,1%) and Voronezh region (9,7%) were the «innovation leaders». The production of electrical machinery, electrical and optical equipment (12,6%), and also chemical manufacturing (10,7%) were traditionally dominating among types of economic activity.

By researching of dynamic of technological innovations cost of small business enterprises during the examination period, we have to mention the two times growth of indicator’s absolute figures in current prices in report year in comparison to 2009 year (up till 13510,5 bln.rub.). The discovered tendency is an evidence of scales expanding of innovative activity in small business area alongside with its «rise in price». In structure of technological innovations cost, as well as in huge manufacturing business, expenses for purchasing of machinery and equipment prevail – their share is more than one third of total innovation expenses.

Despite the growth tendency, the indicators of efficiency of innovative activity among Russia’s small manufacturing enterprises stay at low level. In particular, the correlation between the amounts of innovation and total industrial production, which is produced by small business was only 2,07% in 2013. Evaluating this indicator in terms of main types of economic activity, we should single out chemical manufacturing (3,68%), and also the production of electric, electronic and optical equipment (8,79%). The efficiency of innovative activity in other areas is lower than average-Russian level.

In general, stressing out the significantly low level and, in the same time, some positive trends in sphere of innovation entrepreneurship, let’s pay attention to the following circumstances. At our point of view, information presented by Russian statistics authorities (Rosstat) compound rather limited list of indicators and due to that fact cannot be the foundation for the comprehensive analysis of small business’s innovative activity. In particular, form № 2-SE does not represent innovations in organization and management, marketing, ecological and other types of innovations. Furthermore, statistical research drops a significant sector of Russia’s small business, which represents such types of economic activity as production of goods, implementation of works and providing of services in agriculture, implementation of works in construction industry, providing of trade services, in sphere of transport and communication, services of hotels, etc. In that case we suppose that Russian practice of official statistical research of SIE has to be appropriately added and developed.

The special category of Russia’s small enterprises is University-based SIE (established on basis of Universities). USA and several countries of EU demonstrate the successful experience of functioning of such enterprises, which are entitled as «spin-off» [4]. Russian practice of University-based SIE mainly started from the effective date of Federal law from the 2nd of August 2009 № 217 –FL «About the modification of separate acts of law of Russian Federation on issues of establishment of economic associations by state-financed scientific and educational institutions in purposes of practical utilization (implementation) of intellectual activity’s results». According to the law the state-financed scientific and educational institutions were allowed to establish the economic associations (companies), which in their operation use the results of intellectual activity, an exclusive rights for using of which belong to respective universities and scientific organizations.

According to the data of Russia’s Ministry of Education and Science  on the 1st of September 2014 on basis of educational and scientific institutions for purposes of practical utilization of intellectual activity results were established 2482 economic associations (companies), most part (28,57%) located in Central federal district [3].

One of the leading university in that area is Belgorod state technological university n.a. V.G.Shukhov (BSTU n.a.V.G.Shukhov), where 91 small innovative enterprises are currently functioning, including 70 – with University’s participation (pic.2).

Pic.2. Quantity of small innovative enterprises established

on basis of BSTU n.a.V.G.Shukhov

 

The large scale of university’s innovation activity on SIE basis is confirmed by share of BSTU n.a.V.G.Shukhov scientists and post-graduates involved in it (about 40%).

At the same time the survey of managers and leading specialist of SIE in university let us discover several issues in law regulations, investment and people ware, difficulties in questions of registration, registration and accounting, marketing support activity, etc. Thus the most burning (mentioned by 93% of respondents) issue is financial support of innovation activity of small enterprises, especially at the early stages of development.

At our point of view, the well-known limitations of small innovative business (including university business) can be overcome by using of various schemes of SIE’s activity cross financing, which assume interaction of state authorities, banking sector, private and private-public funds, academic sector, large-scale business and business-angels.

In particular, in our previous research [1], we substantiated the proposal on utilization of such sources of venture investment financing as mezzanine financing, crowdfunding and syndicated financing.

Moreover, at our point of view, at the federal and regional levels it is necessary to continue the work on modernization of mechanisms of fiscal stimulation and grant support of SIE, paying increased attention to initial stage of business development. Simultaneously it is necessary to increase the quality of expertise and level of competitions informational transparency. We also suppose advisable the usage of innovators support, which assume the co-financing in payment of experts/specialists’ services (in area of business-planning, protection of intellectual property, marketing support, etc.) and qualified managers, grants for enrollment of students and post-graduates for work and internship.

We suppose that complex of suggestions and recommendations represented in current article will favor the increase of innovative activity level and survival rate of small business enterprises, suppression of sectorial and phasic defects in economy’s innovative segment, and also will promote the development of professional and entrepreneurship competencies of innovators.

The article was published with the financial support from Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation within the framework of state assignment to the project 26.1511.2014K "Theory and methodology of managing innovational and investment processes in small business enterprises."

 


 



References:
1. Doroshenko, Y.A., Somina, I.V., & Komissarov, S.A. (2013). Sources of Financing and Innovative and Investment Activity of Small Enterprises. World Applied Sciences Journal. 25(6):975-982.

2. An official web-site of Russia’s Federal service of governmental statistics. - URL: http://www.gks.ru/

3. An official web-site of FGBNU NII RINKCE. - URL: http://www.extech.ru/

4. Shane, S. (2004). Academic entrepreneurship: university spinoffs and wealth creation. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.



Bibliographic reference

Doroshenko Y.A., Somina I.V., Ospishchev P.I. The core parameters and issues of small innovation business development in RF. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2014. – № 2 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/457-24651 (21.08.2019).