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Home / Issues / № 6, 2016

Economics

SPORT AS FACTOR OF HARMONIOUS DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN STATEHOOD
Iglin A.V.
In 2013 the UN suggested the international, sports, nongovernmental organizations and all interested parties to celebrate on April 6 the International day of sport for the benefit of the world and development and "to promote increase of awareness on it". The subject of a sustainable development is traditional for all modern states, and as steady it is necessary to recognize harmonious development, i.e. development in all directions of interaction of the personality, society and state.

For the modern personality sport is means of communication, developments, happy and long life. For society sport - means of achievement of the objectives of rapprochement and unity. For the state sport - part of domestic and foreign social policy.

It is considered that sport - the indicator of intellectual level of the state (economy, society, the personality) [1]. In the modern world the level of development of sport is the exact indicator of state of the economy and the social sphere, organizing sports competitions, the state takes obligations for providing the corresponding infrastructure: sports constructions, hotel complexes, highways, means of communication, etc.

Therefore sport, including mass sport - the indicator of "clever" economy, and fashionable processes of modernization affect, besides economy, the relation to mass sport as to the liquid business project.

It is important that sport now - means of political processes. So, historically, for the period of holding the Olympic Games military operations stopped, sports victories increased popularity of the state on the international scene, and defeats urged on the countries to invest big resources in physical culture and sport, and respectively provided popularity of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, aspiration of people to self-improvement and physical beauty.

The sports relations are sphere of action of many international and national programs and the organizations. The most powerful contribution to development of sport was made by the international community and creation of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894. At the same time the first international sports associations appeared even earlier. In particular, the international associations on separate ides of sport (The Wimbledon tennis club - since 1877, the International federation of swimming - since 1908, etc.) which appeared before the IOC also became the prerequisite for revival of the Olympic global Movement. At the level of the UN UNESCO is engaged in questions of physical culture and sport.

It is pleasant that physically disabled people are also involved in an Olympism. So, the summer Paralympic Games are held since 1960, and the winter Games - since 1976.

Everyone should pay attention to formation of the international worker (since 1913) and student's (since 1923) the movements.

In Europe the important place is given to the SPRINT program (sports reform, an innovation, preparation). This program of mutual aid of the countries of the Central and Eastern Europe is accepted in 1991. One more program - Sport for All Association - received priorities in the field of the all-European information policy in sport. This program is also the center of world sports informatics: there is a headquarters of International Association of sports information (IASI), recognized IOC[2].

Based on provisions of international legal documents of the specified organizations, various countries depending on specifics of a social and economic and political system create conditions for development of mass sport, for creation, restoration and replenishment of its resource base as functioning bases.

Foreign experience of development of mass sport demonstrates that the territorial principle of division of administrative functions allows to differentiate accurately competence and responsibility from the government and territorial authorities of management. So, if on a national level the main functions of management are carried out, then regional and local governing bodies of sport are focused more on development of mass sport and sport for all which abroad are inseparable concepts [3].

In the financial plan the international legislation calls for the solution of problems of development of mass sport to use resources of government budgets - national, regional and local. However, as it was shown above, the existing objective prerequisites of growth of charges of the sphere of mass sport do not allow to solve all financial problems at the expense of means from one source. On this point financing of mass sport gains multichannel character [4].

Business makes a considerable financial resource of sport for all. However here it is necessary to emphasize the following aspect. Owing to a high capital intensity of sports services the formation of the commercial organization in this branch demands the high initial capital. Therefore without support of the state and local governing bodies resources of business will be focused on ensuring needs for sports activities of highly profitable segments of the population whereas such sectors as children, middle class, pensioners, etc., do not have an opportunity to be engaged in physical activity. Through direct or indirect state participation in activity of the sports commercial organizations abroad this problem is leveled, however in Russia attempts of its decision are not made.

Thus, characteristic of development of a network of the sports organizations abroad is the prevalence of a share of the enterprises of public property and non-profit organizations.

The international legislation indicates also that training, staffing and management in the field of physical culture and sport have to be provided with qualified personnel. At the same time all personnel are to have the corresponding qualification and preparation, and also to improve the skills for providing appropriate levels of specialization. Besides, also voluntary personnel which are properly trained and picked up have to be used.

Besides, for the last decades scientific and information resources in the field of sport began to take the leading place on the importance. These resources are competent to be divided into two categories - promotion of a healthy lifestyle and information and scientific maintenance of work of the trainer and other sports personnel. Such division is reflected in activity of the leading foreign sports scientific and information organizations.

In general, development of sport in the modern world is based at observance of a priority of mass sport. In the majority of the countries the uniform approaches to resource ensuring mass sport based on its priority and recognition of the high social importance are realized.

Abroad mass sport first of all is the mechanism of improvement of the population, achievement of self-realization, self-expression and development, and also means fight against the asocial phenomena. Therefore the states give to questions of development of mass sport the special importance, setting as a main objective involvement of the population in occupations by mass sport. The main characteristics of developments of mass sport are: increasing of a role of the state in support of mass sport, and also all forms of the organization of activity in this sphere, using mass sport in preventive and medical actions, prevention of the negative social phenomena, using sport in moral, esthetic and intellectual development of youth.

Influence of these processes led to growth of the income from: sports shows and sector of sports services; growths in volumes of sports TV and radio broadcasting; developments of sports and improving infrastructure taking into account requirements of the population; varieties of forms of service, methods and means of the offer of services of mass sport.

In our country development of physical culture and sport is recognized as one of priority activities. In the USSR the purposes and problems of development of physical training, physical culture and sport were enshrined in the Constitution (the principles of mass character and availability of physical training were proclaimed, and in management of sport the capacity of public organizations was used). In the existing Constitution article 41 says that the activity promoting strengthening of health of the person, development of physical culture and sport is encouraged, and article 72 says that in joint maintaining the Russian Federation and subjects of the Russian Federation there are questions of education, training, science, culture, physical culture and sport.

In this regard, public authorities of Russia in the last several years undertake the measures directed to strengthening and improvement of material and regulatory base, necessary for implementation of public policy which main objectives are introduction in public consciousness of idea of a healthy lifestyle, attraction of broad masses of the population (including physically disabled people and disabled people) to sports and improvement of quality of training of the athletes participating in competitions of various levels.

The solution of these tasks has complex character as it is connected not only with social, but also with economic, legal, administrative spheres of action of the state. Results of this work were expressed in successful carrying out Universiade-2013 in Kazan, the Olympic Games-2014 in Sochi, the International army games-2015 and starting in 2018 to the FIFA World Cup in Russia.

At the same time promoting of sport influences also the general level of development of the territory (for example, in administrative and territorial units). Appeal of the whole directions depends on existence of sports and entertaining infrastructure today. The Russian realtors note that existence of sports infrastructure raises the real estate price, many people at the choice of housing want that their popular type of sport was present at an infrastructure component [5]. Moreover, for most people the prestige is shown in membership in sports club (golf club, boat-club, etc.).

Therefore, sport as a factor of development of the state has social and legal reference points. In particular for the nation (promoting of a healthy lifestyle) [6]; the states (reputation on the international scene) [7]; armed forces (exchange of experience and increase of combat readiness) [8]; regions (investments and integration into international cooperation) [9]; business structures (a privilege in the taxation and advertising) [10].

In general, actual problems in the sphere of physical culture and sport are the doping, racial discrimination of athletes, bingo games which manipulate results of competitions, corruption of sports officials, i.e. the same subjects, as in modern society. The sphere of physical culture and sport is bound with public problems and urged to resolve many social and economic problems, such as merging of society, derivation of youth from addictions, sport is important for society as a model of the highest achievements of the person, from the point of view of his role in strengthening of social unity, its contribution to strengthening of health and a growth in prosperity of the population, to promotion of moral values.

Thus, a fundamental problem of public policy is creation the conditions for growing welfare of the population of the state, national consciousness and ensuring long-term social stability. Creation of a basis for preservation and improvement of physical and spiritual health of citizens substantially promotes achievement of the specified purpose. At the same time the essential factor defining a state of health of the population is maintenance of optimum physical activity during all life of each citizen. The experience of many developed countries shows that such task can be solved only at an integrated approach to questions of development of physical culture and sport.

Today the role of sport becomes not only more and more noticeable social, but also political factor in the modern world. Attraction of broad masses of the population to occupations by physical culture, the state of health of the population and progress on the international competitions are the indisputable proof of viability and spiritual power of any nation, and also its military and political power.

 

List of references:

1. See in more detail: http://www.otr-online.ru/kino/sergei-leskov-sport-pokazatel-intellektual-nogo-razvitiya-17735.html

2. See in more detail: Iglin A.V. Sport and right. M, 2012.

3. See in more detail: http://bmsi.ru.

4. See in more detail: http://bmsi.ru.

5. See in more detail: bfm.ru

6. In our country the Order of the Russian Ministry of Health of 30.09.2013 No. 677 "About the adoption of Information and communication strategy for formation of a healthy lifestyle, fight against consumption of alcohol and tobacco, to the prevention and fight against not medical consumption of drugs and psychotropic substances the period till 2020" affects (a comment of the author)

7. After the choice of the Russian Federation by the hostess of the Olympic Games-2014 and the FIFA World Cup-2018 the rating of our state at the international level significantly grew, foreign investments into construction of sporting venues, etc. increased (a comment of the author)

8. In 2015 the International army games were for the first time held (see in more detail on the website of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation - http://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/more.htm?id=12041237%40cmsArticle)

9. For example, in Kazan sports (and not only) the infrastructure came to new level in connection with carrying out Universiade-2013, in Sochi - in connection with holding the Olympic Games-2014 (a comment of the author)

10. See in more detail: "sport branding".



Bibliographic reference

Iglin A.V. SPORT AS FACTOR OF HARMONIOUS DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN STATEHOOD. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2016. – № 6 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/468-25117 (19.11.2017).