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Home / Issues / № 3, 2017

Philological sciences

SYNONYMS IN ENGLISH AND AMERICAN PATENTS IN COMPARISON WITH RUSSIAN ONES
Shtatskaya T.V., Soulimovsky B.N.

In spite of the fact that the patent documentation deals with technical, official language one should note that English text describing invention offers synonyms more broadly as compared to Russian patent papers.

For example, when this or that invention is referred to a concrete field of engineering Russian predicate относиться (refer to) has the following synonyms in English text: relate to, is related to, pertains to, appertains to, concerns, is concerned with, deals with, provides, refers to, lies in the field of, is for improvements in, or relating to.

Russian noun цель (изобретение) object of invention, can be expressed by the following English word combinations; an object of the invention is, the invention has for an object, the invention aims to, the invention seeks to. They are usually rendered into Russian as целью изобретения является (an object of invention is). The noun object is often used as a synonym to the following words: aim, concept, essence, motive, need, objective, principle, purpose, subject etc. Besides, the verbs to aim and to seek the notion иметь цель (to have an object) is sometimes expressed by the verbs to comprehend, to comprise, to provide, to relate etc. The section of the patent the main point of the invention mentions technical means suggested to solve the problem. The stock phrases (clichés) beginning this section can be conventionally subdivided into two groups: some of them are translated by word предлагается (is suggested), the others are rendered as предлагаемый (being suggested).

The first group has the following word combinations: according to the invention there is provided a construction, it is proposed to provide a construction, the invention provides a construction.

The second group is taking the following form: the construction according to the invention, the construction in hand, the construction which is the subject of this invention, according to the invention the construction, on this invention the construction, the construction of this invention.

In most cases the synonymous set has the words of the same part of speech. Anyhow one can meet some other situations. Sometimes synonymity of lexical units does not depend on what part of speech they belong to, but on the functions done by them in the context. If we consider the ways of expressing in English родственная заявка we'll see that word родственная can be rendered by Present Participle (pending, copending), Past Participle (related), attribute (concurrent) and even by noun (cognate, companion). Thus, the following synonymous set is formed: pending application, copending application, related application, concurrent application, cognate application. Or, for example, the verbs to aid, to better, to enchance, to improve, to increase, to raise are considered to be synonymous only with combination with noun efficiency and in this case they have meaning повысить.

The second subgroup consists of lexical units being synonymous no matter in what word combination they are used. One of the most synonymous sets of this group is formed by the nouns having meaning drawback (недостаток): complaint, default, defect, deficiency, disability, disadvantage, failing, failure, fault, imperfection, inadequacy, limitation, nuisance, objection, shortcoming, weakness.

The synonymous set can be continued by word combinations consisting of noun having meaning особенность or эффект and prepositive attribute having meaning unsatisfactory (неудовлетворительный): defective feature, detrimental characteristic, disadvantageous feature, undesirable characteristics, undesirable effect, undesirable feature, unsatisfactory result.

Some authors indicate in their patent descriptions what has been done to achieve this or that goal. The notion to achieve the goal is expressed by the following word combinations: to accomplish the object, to attain the object, to carry out the object, to effect the object, to affectuate the object, to realize the object.

The authors of American and British patent descriptions often say about features and distinctive features of their inventions. The concept feature in such cases is expressed by the following synonymous nouns: aspect, attribute, characteristic, feature, point, result. The notion distinctive feature is rendered by the following word combinations: distinguishing characteristic, characteristic feature, distinctive feature, novel aspect, novel result etc.

Some authors also refer to the drawings and patent claim in the broadening section of the patent. In this case the nouns drawing and claim can also have prepositive attribute forming synonymous sets. One can meet the following attributes to drawing: accompanying, annexed, appended, attached, enclosed.

The above mentioned synonyms and synonymous sets are very often used in the patent documentation. They enrich the language, make it more flexible and diversed, their meanings give opportunity for a translator to render text material into Russian more clearly and correctly.



Bibliographic reference

Shtatskaya T.V., Soulimovsky B.N. SYNONYMS IN ENGLISH AND AMERICAN PATENTS IN COMPARISON WITH RUSSIAN ONES. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2017. – № 3 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/471-25313 (23.02.2020).