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Home / Issues / № 3, 2017

Philological sciences

Kolobaev V.K.
Perception plays an important role in human life, in its labor and cognitive activity. Perception is always a basis of any informative process, its starting point. From the experimental psychology of perception, it is well known that the process of image formation begins with its distinction and proceeds through identification to full and adequate perception of the whole object [1,p 9].

In human cognitive activity, the leading role belongs to vision. To make it productive and not to overstrain at the same time the visual analyzer, it is necessary to organize correctly the beginning of any informative process, i.e. to make perception purposeful, controlled. Initial organization of an object or phenomenon perception greatly influences the information about it, whether it will enter the operative memory and from it to the short-term memory, and then to long-term memory.

It is well known that perception begins with definition of a contour of a subject, its borders and outlines, with identification of special features and characteristics of the studied phenomenon or an object. Successful formation of a complete image of objects significantly depends on a relative distinctiveness of objects by their "initial"  characters [2, p 278]. Becoming objects of perception they seem to turn to the person by their certain aspect depending on the task and also on the already formed ways of perceptual actions thus allowing to recognize in the object under study certain properties or contents [3,p 69].

In case of foreign language grammar teaching the first act of consciousness and perception is detection and fixation of its formal signs as one of its components.

Originally human consciousness cannot perceive the phenomenon under study entirely, distinguish it from others, both similar, and unsimilar. Before distinguishing an object or phenomenon as a whole, the student has at first to learn to distinguish its separate parts and features. Therefore, it is necessary to direct attention of students to the studied phenomenon, to concentrate action of the visual analyzer on the main and essential signs of the introduced grammar material.

It is expedient to use a method of step-by-step introduction of grammar material to realize the principle of purposeful perception and subsequent recognition of the introduced grammar material.  The essence of this method consists in gradual, step-by-step passage from simpler for perception and analysis forms of the introduced grammar material to more difficult, approaching the conditions of natural communication in its written version.

The work on mastering simultaneous perception of grammar material under study was divided into five stages.

Grammar topic "Passive Voice" was used as an example. It is considered to be one of the most difficult and demanding great efforts topic both on the side of pupils, and teacher for its successful mastering.

At the zero level the teacher in a short verbal form explains students formation and grammatical meaning of the passive voice in English. Special attention is given to each element used in the formation of different forms of the passive voice, lexical and grammatical relations between separate elements, which are the part of verbal forms of the passive voice, are explained, examples with the analysis and possible variants of translation into Russian are given. This work takes about 5-7 minute of classroom time. Then gradual formation of skills of simultaneous perception and recognition of this grammar phenomenon in students began. Each subsequent stage realized its own small task allowing transition from successive perception and recognition of the passive voice to its simultaneous perception and recognition.

At the first stage students did exercises in which the grammatical material under study was presented as a separate grammar form or, if necessary, in a minimum context.

At the second stage, the studied grammar phenomenon was presented in a wider context. Students worked not with the isolated grammar form or a minimum context but with phrases or simple uncomplicated sentences.

At the third stage students worked with phrases and sentences peculiar to a natural oral and written language.

At the fourth stage, students worked with the text containing many sentences with grammar phenomenon under study.

If at the first stage students usually analyzed a verbal form (often they did it aloud), tried to find the verb to be, define its form, form of the main verb, i.e. successive perception, consecutive synthesis of separate elements of a verbal form in integral whole; at the final stage elements of analysis were minimized; however, in particularly complex cases they still were present.

To check the ability of simultaneous new grammatical material perception and recognition the fifth stage - control of the formed skills of simultaneous perception development of the studied grammar material - was used.

The analysis showed that in 80% of cases students correctly answered the questions or did the tasks offered to them.

Thus, it is possible to make some conclusions on psychological features of simultaneous perception of a new foreign-language grammar material.

At the first stage, it is necessary to concentrate attention on the studied phenomenon, to create optimum conditions for visual acquaintance with it. The isolated form of presentation of the studied material must help to do it. It is well known from psychology that meaningful material is perceived and remembered better, so the presented grammar form has to be filled with a certain lexical-semantic meaning.

1. Vekker LM 1974 Psychological processes. Leningrad State University Publishers, Leningrad, 320. P

2. Kossov BB 1971 Problems of perception psychology. High school publishers, Moscow, 320. P

3. Zaporozhets AV, Vekker LM, Zinchenko VP, Ruzskaya AG 1967 Perception and activity. Prosveschenie publishers, Moscow, 322. P

Bibliographic reference

Kolobaev V.K. PSYCHOLINGUISTIC FEATURES OF NEW FOREIGN-LANGUAGE MATERIAL PERCEPTION. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2017. – № 3 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/471-25323 (23.09.2020).