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Home / Issues / № 3, 2017

Teaching science

Mirza N.V.
In recent years, Kazakhstan has been implementing a large-scale reform of the state system of support for persons with disabilities, ensuring their social protection and the necessary conditions for individual development, the realization of creative and productive opportunities and abilities.

Reforms in the sphere of education in the Republic of Kazakhstan have a humanistic orientation, where a special place is occupied by the education of persons with disabilities in development. Inclusive education provides access for all categories of children to quality education, the removal of barriers to communication with the world and integration into society in general. The State Program on Development of Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 and the strategic plans for its implementation are clearly identified mechanisms for integrating children with disabilities in the educational process, defined the conditions for them to ensure an accessible environment. According to these documents, by 2020, conditions for inclusive education should be created in 70% of general education schools and, accordingly, the requirement of training and retraining of general education teachers is put forward [1].

The distribution of idea of inclusive education has actualized the need of preparing modern teacher, able to implement inclusive education. But that challenge was not realized in higher pedagogical school.

The ideal of inclusive education determine such conditions that schools not only accept each child who comes through their doors, but also ensure that students with developmental disabilities are considered as full training members in the community class that satisfy including their specific needs. Therefore, inclusive education implies that any child should be excluded from the general education school because of perceived differences in learning. However, inclusive education is more than the presence of a child in school. While the physical presence of the child in regular classes at their local school corresponds to the condition prior to the act of integration, inclusive education also encompasses the inclusion of the child in the framework of the social and educational learning environment [2].

Thus, inclusive education - it is education, that gives everyone the opportunity to be involved in the overall process of training and education (development and socialization), despite the limited possibilities in development, allowing the growing person to become an equal member of society, reduces the risks of segregation and isolation. In the framework of inclusive education is put ideology that excludes any discrimination against children and ensure equal treatment of all people, but creates special conditions for children with special educational needs. The stage of psychological and value changes, the level of professional competence of its specialists is the primary and most important stage in the preparation of the education system for the implementation of the inclusive education process. Already in the early stages of development of inclusive education sharply there is a problem of unavailability of secondary school teachers (professional, psychological and methodological) to work with children with developmental disabilities, found a lack of professional competence of teachers to work in an inclusive environment, the presence of psychological barriers and stereotypes of professional teachers [3].

There is a mixed model, that preserved now in the Republic of Kazakhstan, according to which special education system and the process of inclusion of children with developmental disabilities in the educational process of a comprehensive system will operate in parallel, i.e. inclusive education.

In general, there are a number of other problems in the country. These are a weak teaching and methodological base, lack of necessary equipment, for example, for a child in a wheelchair. But nevertheless, international organizations note that in Kazakhstan, compared to other Central Asian republics, the process of implementing inclusive education is very active. But we need to do everything to make children with disabilities feel equality.

Thus, the development of integrated forms of education for children with disabilities in development should be carried out gradually, based on the planning and implementation of a system of consistent measures that ensure compliance with the above requirements for the organization of this activity.

1. The State Program for Development of Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020, Astana, Akorda, December 7, 2010. - № 1118.

2. Wills D., Jackson R. Inclusion: Much more than being there. Interaction, 1996. - 10 (2). - R. 19-24.

3. Afonkina Y.A., Kuzmicheva T.V., Melnik Y. and etc. Theory and practice of inclusive education in Russia and abroad. - Rostov-on-Don: Publishing House of the International Research Center «Scientific cooperation», 2016. - 202 p.

Bibliographic reference

Mirza N.V. THE PROBLEMS OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN KAZAKHSTAN. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2017. – № 3 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/471-25334 (19.09.2020).