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Home / Issues / № 1, 2013

Economics

DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN THE LARGEST CITIES: PRIORITY QUALITY OF LIVING
Nikitina O.A.

Significantly impact on the tourism competitiveness of the largest cities provides the quality of people's lives. The majority of experts attribute this to the following factors:

  • the changing age structure of society;
  • increase in the number of older tourists;
  • improving standards of environmental safety;
  • improved transport infrastructure,
  • development of health services;
  • improving quality standards of public health.

In the study of  quality of  living in 420 cities in 2011, is recognized as the best city of Vienna (Table 1) [3]. 

Table 1

Worldwide quality of living survey 2011 (Worldwide Rankings, 2011)

Rank

City

Country

1

Vienna

Austria

2

Zurich

Switzerland

3

Auckland

New Zealand

4

Munich

Germany

5

Düsseldorf

Germany

5

Vancouver

Canada

7

Frankfurt

Germany

8

Geneva

Switzerland

9

Bern

Switzerland

9

Copenhagen

Denmark

The top ten, except for Vienna, entered Zurich, Auckland, Munich, Dusseldorf, Vancouver, Frankfurt, Geneva, Bern and Copenhagen.

Russian cities - Moscow and St. Petersburg, have taken 163 and 165 seats accordingly.

One of the general indicators of the «quality of living» is the Human Development Index (HDI). The index measures a country's achievements as public health, education and real income of its citizens, in three main directions:

  • Health and Longevity reflects the life expectancy at birth;
  • Educational coverage population reflect Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling;
  • A decent standard of living, as measured by the Gross national income (GNI) per capita.

In 2011, the rating on the HDI index topped Norway (the index is 0.943). Level of life expectancy in Norway defined as one of the highest in the world - 81.1 years, the Gross national income (GNI) per capita - $ 47,557 (Table 2).

Table 2

The Human Development Index (HDI) and its components

(Worldwide Rankings, 2011) [2]

 

 

 

 

HDI Rank

 

 

 

 

 

HDI

Life expectancy

at birth

(years)

Mean years of

schooling

(years)

Expected years

of schooling

(years)

Gross national

income (GNI)

per capita

(constant 2005

PPP $)

1. Norway

0,943

81,1

12,6

17,3

47557

2. Australia

0,929

81,9

12,0

18,0

34431

3. Netherlands

0,910

80,7

11,6

16,8

36402

4. United States

0,910

78,5

12,4

16,0

43017

5. New Zealand

0,908

80,7

12,5

18,0

23737

6. Canada

0,908

81,0

12,1

16,0

35166

7. Ireland

0,908

80,6

11,6

18,0

29322

8.Liechtenstein

0,905

79,6

10,3

14,7

83717

9. Germany

0,905

80,4

12,2

15,9

34854

10. Sweden

0,904

81,4

11,7

15,7

35837

11. Switzerland

0,903

82,3

11,0

15,6

39924

12. Japan

0,901

83,4

11,6

15,1

32295

13. Hong Kong, China (SAR)

0,898

82,8

10,0

15,7

44805

14. Iceland

0,898

81,8

10,4

18,0

29354

15.Korea, Republic of

0,897

80,6

11,6

16,9

28230

16. Denmark

0,895

78,8

11,4

16,9

34347

17. Israel

0,888

81,6

11,9

15,5

25849

18. Belgium

0,886

80,0

10,9

16,1

33357

19. Austria

0,885

80,9

10,8

15,3

35719

20. France

0,884

81,5

10,6

16,1

30462

66.Russian Federation

0,755

68,8

9,8

14,1

14561

 

The Russian Federation occupies 66th place (HDI = 0.755) in the world rankings. In 2006, Russia ranked 64th (HDI = 802). Index greater than 0.8 made ​​called «high development», index of less than 0.5 - «low development». Russia are the main indicators: life expectancy at birth - 68.8 years, Mean years of schooling - 9.8 years, Expected years of schooling (years) - 14.1 years, Gross national income per capita - $ 14,561 a year.

In general, low Russia due to the social inequality, environmental problems, low life expectancy. In addition, in Russia (as the exporting country Oil and Gas) is a very strong emphasis on the use of natural resources, not to diversify the economy, which in the future could seriously affect the sustainability and stability of human development in the country.

When designing a system of state planning in St. Petersburg used a set of indicators, standards, including the standard quality of living in St. Petersburg.

Thus, the concept of socio-economic development of St. Petersburg until 2025 approved forecast: HDI in 2025 should reach to the city of not less than 0.96 (Table 3).

Table 3

Forecast on indicators of quality of living in St. Petersburg in 2025 [1]

Indicators of quality of living

Forecast for 2025

Base value of 2003

1

Life expectancy at birth (years)

Not less than 73.4

66,5

2

Gross regional product of St. Petersburg per capita (thousands of rubles. / Pers. Year)

Not less than 1440,00

93,90

3

Human Development Index

0,96

0,799

This forecast is very optimistic estimate for the development of St. Petersburg as a world tourism center. Thus, the policy of tourism development of St. Petersburg should be directed on quality of life, which requires not just their ads, but the actual increase the quality and monitoring of socio-economic development of the city.



References:
1. The main directions of development of St. Petersburg until 2025 / Concept of social and economic development of St. Petersburg until 2025 / / Regulation of the Government of St. Petersburg of 20.07.2007 N 884.


2. Human Development Report 2011 / http://hdr.undp.org


3. Mercer Quality of Living Survey /http://www.mercer.com



Bibliographic reference

Nikitina O.A. DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN THE LARGEST CITIES: PRIORITY QUALITY OF LIVING. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2013. – № 1 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/452-24054 (06.10.2022).