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Home / Issues / № 1, 2014

Geographical sciences

Rivers, streams, creeks - specially protected water linear objects of a small area with a complex differentiation of geographical landscapes and natural conditions
Khanmagomedov Kh.L.
According to BF Dobrynin "rivers play an important role in the life of nature and the human population of each country. They affect the production of relief, the nature of soils, the distribution of plants, animals, humans "[2, p.31]. Despite the banality of these words, they are relevant in the XXI century as well. This territory is the southeastern part of Dagestan, where there is a high degree of geographical landscapes differentiation and the formation of natural conditions. The  rivers, streams, creeks in this region of Dagestan were formed under these conditions. This fact is shown in our material collected in 123 settlements and consisting of 186 names of river objects [5, p.163-174].

It is our deep conviction that the river names have been arisen after their carriers' potamonimic (choice of the sign put in the nomination of the name) thinking of  potamologic objects (rivers, creeks, streams). Hence, potamonim is the primary, and potamologic object  is the secondary. River names inventory problem is urgent here . It is examined in  the writings of Azerbaijan and Dagestan scientists [1,3]. The authors of the first writing note that 88 names of rivers, creeks, streams in the south-eastern part of Dagestan are without specifying these objects and 30 of them are  without names there. The Second cited work's authors bring us 130 named  rivers in the territory of Dagestan which is under study [3, p.67,72-77]. 

River terms participate in the patomonims (river names) formation, e.g. Dargin– kherk (gerk, gork,erk ) « river, stream, creek », kata(kotty) « creek », Lak– ner (nir) «river »,  kuruk «streamlet », rat «stream», Lezghin –vats « river, stream », cam «stream », Tabasaran- gyar «stream »,nir  «river », shar «water, river », Rutul– meri (miri) «river », Kumyk - ozen « river, stream», suv « water, river » Azerbaijani –chay « river, stream, creek », bulag (bulak) «stream, creek », arkh « ditch, stream ».

As a result of the collected field material studiyng, we identified 10 nomination indicators of rivers, streams, creeks names foundation, characterizing nutrition of these objects in the first group, for example Gyariknir (from tabasaran. «brook river», Hurik village), Ziluhshin (from Lak «stream river»); river meandering - in the second group: Figure eight, the part of Uluchay River  in the district of Berikei village, Hyatturukkay (from Rutul . «zigzag» [creek], Borch village; water temperature- in the third one: Mekeram(from Lezghin. «cold creek», Gogaz village, Suukbulah (from Azerbaijani  «cold source »  Myurego village) the river colour-in the fourth: Sarikam (from Azerbaijani and Lezghin) '' yellow creek'' because of the yellow deposits in the creek area, Ashaga stal village; wayward nature - in the fifth group: Dalichay « riotous river »from Azerbaijani. During the spring-summer and summer-autumn high water, it spreads on the surrounding area, causing damage to the farmlands and settlements. Gur (from Lezghin. «bustling», Miskindzha village), the river transparency - in the sixth group: Abziherk,  from Dargin « transparent river », vegetation -in the seventh (Harmuli from Dargin « the reeds », Meusisha village, Dutsa from Dargin «forest » Kirtsik village, Almabag-chay from Azerbaijani   « the apple orchard creek» Salik village), the past resettlement evidencing names -in the eight group: Gelar (from Turk. «the Gels »,Arak village), Muhahkam (from Lezghin «Azerbaijani creek», Kurakh village), anthroponimical characters, who tidied up  the streams in the proper order- in the ninth. Zuhrarat (from Lak. «Zuhra's stream», Karasha village), Dzhalulrat (from Lak. «Dzhalil's stream», Muslakh village), names signalizing about the permanent debris flow processes -in the tenth: Yuhurhud (from Rutul « debris flow river » Ihrek village), Yuhurdy Meri (from Rutul «river at  the mudflow »Kala village, Rutul district).

It is necessary to bring under particular state protection all the rivers and streams, related with onetime resettlement of people and tribes, vegetation, former water mills, as well as the cautionary of natural phenomena, which  occur in the hydrological objects, streams of Karasu must be safeguarded (from Azerbaijani «spring water, potable water, transparent water»), which are widespread in the tugai forests areas of Southeast Dagestan and in the delta of Samur.

I will touch on the some "river" names transfer. Dobrynin B.F. conveys the name of a river in the north of Dagestan Terkemey plains in his book " the Dagestan SSR Geography " in two ways: Ulluchay and Buganchay [2, p.41], he writes continuing, that he gives it double names in  its lower half of the flow: the river is named as Bugan from Majalis village up to the sea, and in its  more southern part (eastern part) -its name is  Ulluchay.

He uses the name of the river flowing in  Sergokalinsky and Kayakentsky regions of Dagestan in two ways, as the Gamriozen river and Gamzhiozen river [2, p.41]; he also names  Gyulgerychay river even as Gyulgyarychai, Gyurgenchay.

Authors of the book "Rivers of Daghestan" indicate in parentheses the river Kuhnke as the beginning of the river Ulluchay; Ulluchay length is about 94 km., Kuhnke - 8 km. The Ulluchay whole length turns out to be about 102 km  instead of 111 km, as noted in today's geographical literature [4, p.157].

We touched here only on some of the mentioned problems issues. All the river, creek, stream names should be inventoried,  generalized  and made available to the state and municipal bodies, and it is especially urgent, when people not only of cities, townships experience a shortage of clean drinking water and every year the problem solution becomes relevant. We see this issue solving in the use of water linear objects of mountain areas, as well as the use of potamonimic material as  annunciator  about the river objects water  properties.

1. Gul K.K., Vlasova S.V., Kissin I.M. , Terterov A.A . Dagestan ASSR Rivers . Makhachkala:Dag. book publishing, 1961 . - 370pp . with app.

2. Dobrynin B.F. Dagestan SSR. Geography - Makhachkala Dag. book publishing, 1926 . - 128pp . + Map.

3. Muslumov V.H. Hydropower resources of the Dagestan ASSR . - Makhachkala: Dag. book publishing, 1972 . - 212pp.

4. Pashayev K.I., Dalgatov I.G. Geography of Dagestan. 9 grade . : textbook for educational institutions of Dagestan Republic. -M . : Bustard , 2009.-157 [2]pp . , ill., maps.

5. Khanmagomedov H.L. Southeast Dagestan Toponymy Dictionary. Makhachkala: Dagestan Teachers' Training State University, 1998 . - 414pp . / Dep. VINITI . - № 1958 . - in 98 of1998,29.06

Bibliographic reference

Khanmagomedov Kh.L. Rivers, streams, creeks - specially protected water linear objects of a small area with a complex differentiation of geographical landscapes and natural conditions. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2014. – № 1 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/456-24495 (04.12.2021).