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Home / Issues / № 1, 2014

PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEMS OF PHYSICAL CULTURE
Shirokov V. М., Guseva A. N.

Physical culture has objective conditions, preconditions and basics for her origination and development. But these things do not give birth to physical culture themselves. Reasons of development and origination are located in social sphere of public life. Social problems are the most important reason which determines evolution of physical culture.

Problem of man's and society's needs is learned by different sciences- sociology, psychology, philosophy and etc. In common meaning, need is a society's and person's reaction to information about requirement.

A lot of researchers in their investigations studied need's problem of society and people. There were several meanings of the word "need". For example: "Need is requirement, necessity, affair of subject for something to meet desire with some object or some form of activity"; "Need is a basic factor of person's behavior, individual's relevant to his conditions of life." Need makes natural world different from inanimate objects. Need is a derivative of necessity. A.G. Kovalev writes; "Needs are fundamental properties of individual, they tend to identify person's directivity and eventually determine way of life and activities"[1]. According to some experts, the definition of the word "needs" the most successful was given by A.V. Petrovsky and M.B. Turovsky: "The need of the organism's condition, social group, society, expressing the dependence of the objective content of the conditions of their existence and development and act as a source of various forms of their activity"[2].

Need is a source of human activity, kind of human relations . Formation, development and satisfaction of needs depends on the external (objective conditions, the process of practice, education) and internal (biological structure, psychological characteristics, self-awareness of subject) factors. Needs are not only a reflection of life in the social conditions of the subject, but also a kind of vital programs that were given by society and nature. The most important factor that mediates needs is education, as taking by the subject the world of human culture. In the process of education human's needs are formed. Formation of requirements that important to develop personalities and society, acts as an important task of social life.

Needs are incentive forces of human activity. There are natural needs and needs created by society. Philosophy divides into the material and spiritual requirements, and also on genetic principle into biological and social, which in turn are divided into creative and consumer.

Need is a form of anticipatory reflection of reality, because it acts like knowledge about the subject needs. Being an ideal reflection of object needs, need at the same time foreshadows the possibility of realizing this need. Needs can be personal, collective and public. V.S. Romanov and some other authors conventionally isolate "lower" and "higher" needs. The first of these are biological needs, the second - those needs, the existence of which connects with the social nature of man. Social needs are a phenomenon of a higher order than the biological needs. Among social needs stand out, as V.S. Romanov noted, mental needs and physical activity: "The man, who lives and develops, should have an social activity that would contributes development, that is, he must work both mentally and physically, not only for other needs but to preserve and develop their specific form. If this particular need for a long time is not satisfied, as proved by the life and science, there will be a mental and psychological degradation of the individual".

Need is a certain condition of the organism, it creates an unstable state as a system. Need leads to stress, which seeks discharge in the appropriate form of activity that allows to understand the "need" as a source of activities aimed at meeting needs.

Psychologists divide requirements into substantive and functional. Substantive needs include the need for material things, spiritual values and other results of activities. Functional requirements are need for the activity itself, work, teaching, learning methods to meet the needs.

Hungarian philosopher Laszlo Garrosh believes that all requirements of functioning, in the strict sense, are unique to animals, humans also need functioning, but it is only a singular demonstration of the basic needs - the need for purposeful activity.

It is necessary to take that in contrast to the collective requirements individual needs are more mobile, because individual is more malleable than society. Therefore, individual and collective needs in some cases may not be the same.



References:
1. Ковалев А. Г. Психология личности. М., 1970. С. 119.

2. http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc_philosophy/7110/потребность



Bibliographic reference

Shirokov V. М., Guseva A. N. PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEMS OF PHYSICAL CULTURE. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2014. – № 1 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/456-24522 (04.12.2021).