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Home / Issues / № 4, 2014

Agricultural sciences

VALUABLE SOURCE MATERIAL FOR THE CREATION OF EARLY-MATURING HYBRIDS CORN FOR CONDITIONS OF SIBERIA
Ilyin V.S.
Siberia is a vast region of Russia with diverse climatic conditions. The territory of Siberia occupies about 57% of the total area of the Russian Federation. Here actively in industrial and civil construction, develop the oil and gas industry, high enough population. Therefore, the problem of increasing food production, especially livestock products remains very relevant. [1]

Corn growing in Siberia for producing high quality silage or fodder grain is only possible due to the use in the production of early-maturing hybrids. Such hybrids should have enough active initial growth at low temperatures, an early and amicable bloom, the ability to rapidly lose moisture during maturation. It is important that the seed parent forms such hybrids was cost-effective.

In 1997, the laboratory of maize breeding, Sibniish, was created Siberian branch of the Russian scientific research Institute of corn. Work on the creation and study of inbred lines and hybrids of maize was continued.

From 2001 to 2009 we have sent to the state Commission on testing five corn hybrids, created in cooperation with the firm FAC (Germany). Three of them were included in the State Register of the Russian Federation: Omca 130 and Omca 150 (2001) and Omca 135 (2012).

Hybrid Siberian 135 created by breeders all-Russian scientific research Institute of corn, Pyatigorsk) and the Siberian branch of the research Institute of corn, Omsk). Hybrid transferred to Hospitalia in 2013 for 9 -10 and 11 regions of the Russian Federation. It's early, three-way hybrid grain and silage direction. It can successfully be grown to obtain feed grain and high-quality silage in Siberia (table 1).


 (table 1).  The results of the test hybrids corn Omca 130 and  Siberian 135 in Omsk on average for 6 years (2008 - 2013.)

(Fertilizer and irrigation during the test hybrids were not applied).

 

Years of testing

The grain yield of 14 % moisture content, t/ha

Harvesting humidity
grain, %

The period of the emergence - flowering of the cob", days

Омка 130 - st

Сибирский  135

Омка 130 - st

Сибирский  135

Омка 130 -st

Сибирский  135

2008

48,4

67,3

36,6

35,9

50

50

2009

45,3

58,9

38,5

38,8

57

59

2010

44,3

47,8

38,7

38,0

56

56

2011

44,8

47,8

39,9

39,8

49

50

2012

49,2

57,3

36,6

35,3

46

47

2013

55,8

67,9

38,3

38,0

52

52

On average

48,0

57,6

37,9

37,6

51,7

52,3

Need hybrids of this type as hybrid Omca 130 and Siberian 135. who today can serve as a model for conditions of Siberia.

Studies have been conducted to study all lines created more than 30 years. [2] Highlighted the best with valuable features and properties. These lines assessed by main economic - valuable characteristics and properties: yield, the ability to quickly lose moisture, fertility and others. For each of the 12 indicators selected 10 of the best lines. Some lines are among the best on several indicators. In fact remained 54 best line. This material is for breeders in maize, can be of interest when creating early-maturing hybrids. (Table 2)

Table 2. The best inbred lines that can be donors when creating a new early-maturing hybrids.

№п/п

Показатели

Линии

1

The output of grain from the cobs

Ом 186,  Ом 193,  Ом 232,  Ом 196, 

Ом 240,  Ом 162,  Ом 116

2

 

The grain yield at 14% moisture

Ом 204,  Ом 374,  Ом 256,  Ом 155,

Ом 196,  Ом 300,  Ом 370.

3

 

     In maturity, days from
germination to flowering of the cob

Ом 107,  Ом 112,  Ом 134,  Ом

 16,  Ом 127,  Ом 140,  Ом 133

4

 

The height of laying the cob

Ом 255,  Ом 225,  Ом 133,  Ом 285,

Ом 300,  Ом 111, Ом 286

5

Resistance to loose smut of corn cob

Ом 107,  Ом 112,  Ом 300,  Ом 196,

 Ом 230,  Ом 204,  Ом 361

6

 

Mass of 1000 grains

Ом 140,  Ом 131,  Ом 311,  Ом 195, 

Ом 198,  Ом 154,  Ом 134

7

 

The length of the cob

Ом 311,  Ом 322,  Ом 104,  Ом 303, 

Ом 155,  Ом 204,  Ом 164

8

By weight of the grain from the cob

Ом 193,  Ом 370,  Ом 189,  Ом 104, 

Ом 235,  Ом 181,  Ом 204

9

 

The number of branches panicle

Ом 256,  Ом 274,  Ом 299,  Ом 153, 

Ом 178,  Ом 101  Ом 374

10

 

The protein content

Ом 279,  Ом 230,  Ом 198,  Ом 153, 

Ом 240,  Ом 190,  Ом 161

11

 

In lysine content

Ом 286,  Ом 279,  Ом 25  Ом 260, 

Ом 235,  Ом 106,  Ом 240

12

 

The fat

Ом 279,  Ом 230,  Ом 281,  Ом 229,

 Ом 153,  Ом 187,  Ом 140

During the period (1999 to 2009) was created more than 50 new inbred lines. In order to evaluate them in the same conditions and using the same methodology, with the aim of identifying lines with valuable features and properties in 2010 was laid postgraduate experience. Inbred lines was sown in the nursery working collection. As a standard was used early line Om. The line was studied on the complex of economically useful traits was conducted diallel crosses for the study of combining ability. Just been allocated 14 lines, which are mainly siliceous consistency of grain, rarely used and in the dent.

As a result of experience were marked lines of interest for breeding. The earliest line: Om 136 and Om 14. Tall line: Om 14, Om 149 , Om  414. The high attachment of the economic good of the cob have the line: Om 25 Om 149. Mass of 1000 grains were distinguished: Om 136, 14, Om 410. By weight of the cob - Om 14. The length of the cob - Om 14,

Inbred line Om-196. Patent No. 0050. Subspecies siliceous. Grain yellow, 1000-grain weight 189 g, the protein content of 11.5%, lysine - 241 mg/100 g of grain, fat and 3.8%. Ear: length 13.0 cm, weight 60,6 g, diameter 3.2 cm, rows of grains 12, shape conical, rod white, the output of grain 81%. The plant is medium, the height of the main stem 160 cm, leaves on the main stem 12, aboveground nodes 8, nekustamais, the height of the laying of the cob 40 cm leg of the cob, short, wrap well closes the cob. Paleopathology capacity is high, Resistance to lodging and damaging bubble development is weak, the cold resistance is high. In the vegetation period is early. Yield and combining ability is high.

Inbred line Om-136. Subspecies siliceous. Grain orange, 1000-grain weight 238 g, protein 11,78%, lysine - 243 mg/100 g of grain, fat and 4.4%. The ear is the average length of 13.9 cm, weight of cob to 77.7 g, diameter 3.6 cm, series of beans 12-14 form a cone-shaped, rod red, the output of grain to 77%.
The plant is medium, the height of the main stem 143 cm, leaves on the main stem 12, aboveground nodes 8, not costamesa, the height of the laying of the cob 38cm, cobs per plant 1.0, the leg of the cob, short, wrap well closes the cob. Paleopathology ability high, panicle length 31 cm, number of branches = 11. Early - days "emergence - flowering ear" 48. Lines Ohms 136 used as one of the parental forms in the new hybrid Siberian 135, which is transferred to the  State register of Russia in 2013.

Inbred line 14.A Subspecies siliceous, yellow grain, weight of 1000 grains g, large ear, weight of cob 92,5g, diameter 3,6cm, length of cob 14,4 cm number of rows of grains 12-14. Plant tall, the height of the main stem 168cm, leaves 12, nodes 8 , cob 1 plant -1, the leg of the middle ear, wrap well closes the cob, the height of the laying of the ear 42 cm, Paleopathology ability high, panicle length 38 cm, number of branches 13. Early-maturing. The number of days "emergence - flowering corn cob" - 49. Line Om 14 - one of the parental forms promising hybrid, which is environmental testing.

Branch staff have 34 copyright certificates on lines and hybrids of maize, and 18 patents for inbred lines. In the state register of Russia are now 6 lines: Om 107 Om, Om 112, Om 196 Om, Om 370,

Om  374,  Om 378.

In 2014, Omsk, on the basis of the Siberian branch was held interregional scientific-practical conference "Corn in Siberia - problems and achievements". For cultivation in Siberia recommend the following hybrids: Mashuk 150 MV, Mashuk 170 MV, ROSS 140 ST, Catherine ST, Ob 140 ST. [3]

In strict compliance with all requirements, growing techniques, and the use of early-maturing hybrids, and in our environment to get 50 - 60 quintals of fodder maize per hectare, or high-quality silage. A good example is Germany, where maize is grown over an area of more than 400 thousand, and silage - about 1.5 million hectares Over the last 45-50 years acreage of corn for silage increased 15 times, and in the aft field corn occupies more than 70 %.

The cultivation of corn requires special cultivation technology and higher material costs. We are convinced that the leaders of the steppe and the southern forest-steppe zones of Siberia, forced, will be the capital to do corn and solve the feeding  problem due to this amazing culture!

Referees:  

Dmitriev  V. I., Century. And. ds.-HN REPUBLIC Sibniish, , Omsk;

Evdokimov, M., D.S.-HN REPUBLIC Sibniish, Omsk.



References:
1. Corn in Siberia, (monograph) Kashevarov N.I, Ilyin V. S., Kashevarova, N.N., Ilyin I. V. Novosibirsk, 2004. -400 C.

2. Soboleva N., V., Ilyin V. S., Loginova, A. M. Catalogue of self-pollinated lines of corn, Sibniish. Novosibirsk, 1991. 96 C.

3. Sotchenko V. S., Sotchenko Y. V. State and prospects of seed corn. Corn and sorghum. No. 1 in 2014, With-.3-8.



Bibliographic reference

Ilyin V.S. VALUABLE SOURCE MATERIAL FOR THE CREATION OF EARLY-MATURING HYBRIDS CORN FOR CONDITIONS OF SIBERIA. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2014. – № 4 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/459-24755 (26.02.2024).