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Home / Issues / № 1, 2015

Economics

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS
Gladilina I. P.
According to many scientists, the end of the twentieth century was the period of the dissemination of ideas about the need to change the paradigm of public administration. At that time, scientists began to realize the need to move towards a new model in public administration based on strengthening the public nature of governance. This implicates an important change of the state's role: from producer of public goods to the regulator of market processes. During the implementation of this model the most important effect is possible in case of observance of the principles of openness, innovation, decentralization, and also the combination of market and state regulation, individual freedom and new forms of individual and collective responsibility [1; 2; 3].

The public nature of development has a significant number of problems, among which unresolved contradictions in the actions of the state, businesses and the public. Indeed, Russia is typical for the alienation of the public from the state, which is often expressed in civic apathy and deliberate distance of a large part of the population from the administrative decision-making process. This contradiction is reflected in the removal of the management process from the administrative decision-making and implementation phases [5]. It should be noted that one of the main conditions for the resolution of the existing contradiction is the establishment of a public nature of governance based on new models of public administration and mechanisms for their implementation.

It is currently possible to identify the main derivatives of these fundamental contradictions. One of these contradictions is between the need for public administration in a fair observance of its interests and the balance between these needs and interests with a real possibility of meeting them. The existence of various conflicting interests is typical for the object and the subject of public administration. These interests are realized to some extent, which subsequently leads to a clash for the opportunity to participate in the administrative decision-making and decision implementation on most important issues to the community.

The discrepancy between the objective nature of public administration and the subjectivity of ways of its implementation is the second derivative of the fundamental contradictions of public administration. Usually, this discrepancy is caused by the desire of the state to the stable development of the whole society, which is reflected in the dynamics and statics of the state as a kind of structure and is considered from the perspective of partnership. The essence of this contradiction is to define chaos or dynamic disequilibrium, suggesting that changes in external variables of activities of public administration bodies mean that the previous management experience with its debugged stereotypes must be subject to destruction. In this regard, the Government should respond to these changes flexibly through the public administration bodies.

The contradiction between the need for reliable and timely information, transparency and openness in public administration, as well as its possible information distortion affecting its accuracy, is one of the main derivative contradictions of public administration. In fact, this contradiction means that public authorities must communicate true and accurate information on their performance to the civil society and the business community through officials. However, the opposite usually happens, as it is the authority's complete monopoly that automatically increases the degree of controversy both within and between public authorities. This fact determines the need for constant communication of accurate and complete information. However, in practice this does not always happen or it is significantly delayed, resulting in the loss of important and relevant information, which is typical for all levels of public administration in Russia.

In addition, there is a tendency of increased social and economic disparities in the regions of Russia, which has a destructive effect on the Russian regional policies. This factor is in fact conflictogenic, which in the medium and long term can lead to irreversible consequences for the regional administration. The public nature of management should promote the development of the regions not only through government support, redistributing regional finances, but also with the development of communicative partnership between the state, society and business. Therefore, the most important thing is the balance between the administrative and powerful factors in the public administration, which sometimes come into conflict with each other. The main problem is that power influence has an order encouraging essence, while an administrative influence implies a clear horizontal communication built on the principle of feedback. Power management usually prevails in the Russian management practice, which results in a number of problems in the functioning of communication and feedback.

Russia carries out simultaneously basic and innovative reforms, which are executed sequentially in other countries. Basic reforms are intended to clean up the mess, especially in the administrative system [3]. The parallel development of these processes in Russia resulted in a number of contradictions, and the system is constantly exposed to reforms, which does not allow laying the foundation for long-term, stable and sustainable development. Nowadays, there is a global trend of innovation development, where the main trend is the consistent implementation of administrative influence on this segment of the economy.

The Russian management system has many problems, but one of the most important ones is the issue revolving around the development of innovative and technological potential of the Russian economy, which is caused by a specific regulation by the state of the innovation sphere, namely:

1) lack of scientific and industrial structures in the regions, ready to compete in domestic and foreign markets, creating the conditions to attract investments and to spread innovations;

2) indistinct distribution of resources in key areas of scientific and technological progress.

The emergence of this problem was caused by unresolved contradiction between the lack of government support with resources for innovation sector and the needs of production's improvement due to the low significance of public administration mechanisms in the development of the economy.

The deficit of funds in the economy requires a system of financing the innovation sphere, the core of which should be a public-private investment in innovation [4]. In this case, there is a need for redeployment of some of the powers in favor of the private sector, which reinforces the public character of management and facilitates the flow of resources (tangible and intangible) in innovative segments of the economy. In order to reduce potential costs, it is necessary to involve private entities in this process, which will not only reduce government costs, but it will develop business entities as well. The public management of innovations in modern Russian conditions is thereby a new paradigm and a new type of organization.

The poor development of informational and analytical factors of managerial decisions is one of the most vulnerable parts of the implementation of the state policy as it subsequently leads to miscalculations and errors in the implementation of socio-economic policies. Decisions at the local level often do not reflect the real needs of the population's majority as they are adopted in the interests of a small social group, which controls almost all national resources. Such decisions lead to a continuous growth of social disparities, not only domestically but also internationally.

The biggest obstacle in the development of effective public administration is a lack of flexible mechanisms to resolve conflicts between private and public interests. For the full development of the public nature of the administration it is necessary to solve the following problems:

1) lack of improvement of the innovational-technical potential of the Russian economy;

2) poor quality of public decision-making;

3) lack of effective policies, taking into account the proportionate interests of both public and private entities;

4) insufficient number of competitive businesses in the innovation field;

5) poor personnel training of public managers;

6) lack of modern mechanism of coordination in the property management.

Indeed, the character of management action, exerted by the management subject on management object, becomes essential in the course of implementation of a public nature of governance. In this case, the main purpose of public administration is to focus on the achievement of socio-significant results. Thus, public administration becomes the result of a kind of social contract, according to which state powers are transferred to government institutions, and the people are the source of these powers, which automatically makes the public administration the most important sort of governance on the national scale. Public organizations, citizens and other public institutions in the field of public administration are subjects of this type of governance. They are actively involved in the administrative decision-making and decision implementation due to the existence of developed feedback. Consequently, they can also get some public administration powers for their most efficient implementation in the interest of the whole society.

In this model, the state is no longer a totalitarian or authoritarian system, and in this case it needs to ensure the system's accountability to the specific requirements and needs of the society. Its citizens, who have access to the public administration and implementation process of public policy, become active subjects of the society. The development of a public nature of the administration aims at increasing the transparency of actions of public administration authorities, thus creating models of communicative interaction of the society, businesses and government. This system is therefore designed to provide the highest level of general well-being both for the public and the society as a whole.



References:
1. Goncharova O.Ju. Public administration small business development: theoretical foundations // Journal of Economic Regulation (Regulatory Issues Economics), 2014. - №2. - V.5.

2. Kuzin D. Russia: a new paradigm of management // Problems of the theory and practice of management. - 2011. - №8.

3. Limareva D.N. Public administration development of public-private partnerships. - Dis. ... Kand.ekon.nauk. - RnD, 2013. - 201c.

4. Ovcharenko G.V., Larkina N.G. Innovative management in modern organizations: a tutorial. - Rostov n / d: SAKGS 2011.

5. Ponkin I.V. Concept, characteristics and nature of public administration and education // Right. - 2013. - №11.



Bibliographic reference

Gladilina I. P. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2015. – № 1 –
URL: www.science-sd.com/460-24752 (21.06.2024).