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Home / Issues / № 3, 2016

Teaching science

Sergeeva B.V.
Teacher training - one of the most important conditions for stable, successful operation and further development of both the education system and society as a whole. Currently, the professional activity of teachers takes place in a complex and contradictory conditions. One reason for this is that there is a discrepancy between, on the one hand, between the level of competence that meets the professional status of the teacher exhibited by cultural specialist level, and on the other - by the real possibilities that are available to achieve them. Before society is to create a cadre of pedagogical potential, adequate preparation for their level of professional culture and integrated into the current socio-economic conditions.

Meanwhile, the lack of clear guidance in the area of educational policy adversely affects the content of teaching. As a result, many teachers are passive, the reluctance to change anything in their work, are biased against objectively overdue innovation, largely due to personal characteristics of teachers, such as low social professional activity, conservatism, indifference, which becomes an obstacle to the reform of the education system. In this regard, there is a need definition of theoretical and methodological bases of professional self-development of the future teacher and pedagogical support.

V.V. Serikov [8] believes that education-oriented person, should optimally be combined with the national standard of personal self-development capabilities. The difficulty of becoming a professional requires a specially organized teacher training.

Scientists believe that this process represented phases: the general system of training - teaching skills - willingness multifaceted - professionalism.

Each stage can be considered as a system. Thus, vocational teacher training at the university seems subsystems: axiological (the choice of personally significant value orientations); cognitive (arms scientific knowledge to carry out activities); personal (the development of reflexive abilities, ability to self-regulation, self-determination, self-development); activity-creative (formation methods of activity, creativity).

Teaching literacy (theoretical knowledge, a profound knowledge of the man, conscious of their application in practice; possession of pedagogical skills and abilities) can be an indicator of the final training.

Willingness to express perfection preparation for self-employment, which is based on substantive and methodological knowledge. Readiness is considered as the mobilization of psychologists: the concentration of the individual forces (K.K. Platonov, P.A. Rudik,
D.N. Uznadze, and others.); integration of the individual components (M.I. Dyachenko,
L.A. Kandybovich, V.A. Malyako and others.); the desire for self-expression (T.I. Chechet) and the need for self-expression (Y.I. Turchaninova).

Teaching professionalism is treated as a teacher's ability to make an individual contribution to the profession. Scientists put a different meaning to the notion of «professionalism»: the level of formation of skill (J.K. Babanskiy); creative mastery of the skill (K.M. Levitan); professional activities and the professionalism of the person (N.V. Kuzmina); process and result of operations (I.D. Bagaeva); teacher skill level (V.A. Slastenin) and others.

Thus, the quality of vocational teacher education is the quality of pedagogical high school graduate - specialist vocational training sphere, determined by the development of its social, cultural, spiritual, professional and activity-related skills at the level necessary and sufficient for the realization of their objectives and functions of vocational education. It is formed as an integral feature of the graduate, adding up of the unity of socially, professionally and personally significant properties. The quality of vocational teacher education is a complex multi-level dynamic properties of the system.

If the purpose of teacher education in the achievement of the planned quality, the ideal outcome of the educational process - to graduate ready for occupation.

Educational activity is the process of solving the countless number of problems - functional and pedagogical. Functional tasks aimed at finding tools and pedagogical task - to find the pupil transition from one environment to another state. The pedagogical problem arises when more than one possible solution, and involves finding the preferred method of achieving the desired result. Thus, the result of the decision of pedagogical tasks required orientation for the future, and therefore continuous operation of teacher self-improvement, which is also the personal quality, a certain integrity.

Thus, the specificity of the developing modern education requires retraining of teachers and training on a new basis, in a mode of continuous pedagogical education, success is not possible without the willingness of the teacher to self-improvement.

Continuous teacher training involves the development of social and cultural experience with the use of all parts of the educational system and the means of their succession. It represents a great potential for formation of readiness of teachers to improve themselves as implementing a number of functions: compensating (fill gaps in basic education); adaptive (operational training for teaching in a professional environment me¬nyayuscheysya); developmental (meeting the spiritual needs of the individual, creative development needs). As pointed out by G.M. Kodzhaspirova [3], continuous education, not because people are constantly moves from one form of education to another, so that when necessary he can expand and complement the existing education, but it must be installed on self-improvement. It should be a conscious part of the future teacher in the improvement of their professional activities.

An analysis of the scientific literature (V.N. Zaitsev, E.I. Isaev, D.V. Roziy,
V.I. Slobodchikova) Showed a significant role of the teacher identity for the implementation of innovative processes. So, it is established (E.Y. Kosarev), that there is a close link between: the cognitive component of identity (self-understanding in the teaching activities) and individual personality indicators of readiness for innovation; motivational-oriented creative person of the teacher and the positive assessment of itself as a developing subject, and the ability to self-control; teacher creativity and capacity for self-regulation.

Speaking criterion of readiness for innovation, professional identity summarizes the experience, reflecting the past and focused on the future, as an essential factor of self-determination. Line up the model's own activities allow the teacher value orientations, among which are significant identity products: the relation to himself as a professional, the professional ideal self-concept.

The problems associated with self-awareness, are the basis of the development of man's inner world, are the basis for the realization of its goals and values. Presentation of the personality of the Self, a measure of awareness of itself have the maturity level of the whole person. Self-regulation of the subject's activity is carried out by means of personal responsibility, self-awareness. «In the mental life of the individual, in its structure of self-consciousness, along with consciousness, it is like the central image. This is - a necessary condition for the integrity and continuity of the internal world of the person» [5]. S.L. Rubinstein pointed out that «the problem of studying the personality does not end on the study of its properties - its ability, temperament, character; She completed the disclosure of identity of the person [6].

Professional identity is regarded by scientists as a man of his awareness of belonging to a professional group (B.D. Parigin); Election activities of the individual (V.D. Bragin, P.A. Shavir); part of identity (V.G. Katashov); element of professional self-determination process (PA Shavir) and others. Come to the conclusion that the differences in the disclosure of the meaning of the broad concepts are not contradictory and reflect its different plans.

Teacher identity includes the ability to correlate the cycle and the content of education, implemented in the curricula and programs, pedagogical ideas and methods to the specific conditions of practice (N.E. Bulankina). Professional identity is allocated a significant element of pedagogical skills, the driving force behind professional development (V.A. Slastenov,
L.S. Podymova). The professional consciousness of the structure stand out: the space of professional activity, pedagogical communication and self (L.M. Mitin). Each of them is seen as a structure that includes cognitive, affective, and behavioral components.

E.M. Nikireev [4] in the professional consciousness of the structure includes a general and professional self-esteem, professional-pedagogical orientation and attitude towards the profession.

The moral side of consciousness is expressed in the realization of his moral character, value orientations, and in the end - in the pedagogical orientation. Self-consciousness determines the relevance of self-development needs, which results in self-assertion, self-expression, self-actualization. The problem of emotional comfort of the teacher in the profession is quite acute: not satisfied with their jobs, according to the F.G. Ziyatdinova [1], is not less than 90% and not fully satisfied - 20%. Positive emotional experiences have intrinsic value and include: confidence in the correctness of their actions (expertise, equipment); lifestyle preference, appropriate vocational aspirations; self-esteem and pride; the need for followers, disciples. The joy of experiencing success in educational work to encourage self-improvement, becomes a motive of self-sustained. Self-consciousness as an orientation in itself, necessary to regulate their own activity, is determined by the content of motivational sphere of the subject.

Development of professional consciousness indicates a person's ability to find a balance between social and individual needs, the ability to self-determination of professional development (Y.P. Povarenkov). Mature personality - is primarily a self-determined identity and self-awareness leads to the growth of self-improvement processes.

Let's consider the relationship of the concept of «professional self-improvement» with concepts such as «consciousness», «consciousness», «professional identity», «professional self-development», «professional self-determination». Schematically, this relationship is shown in Fig. 1.



Fig. 1

The condition of professional development is to understand the need for change, the transformation of his inner world and the search for new opportunities of self-realization in professional work. Prevention of difficulties requires pedagogical support. Formation of readiness for professional self-improvement based on the methodology, content, technology fundamentals.

Thus, the formation of professional self-made, taking into account the major sources of professional consciousness changes: private practice and communication within the professional environment. Pedagogical bases of formation of professional self-improvement can be summarized as follows: the principle of continuity, consistency and integrity; phased development; priority development of perceptive and reflective faculties; combination of education, self-education and innovative training techniques.

Professionalism of teachers is reflected in its behavioral characteristics, resulting from the possible realization of themselves as individuals, the desire to look for different ways to solve the problems, the ability to self-criticism, self possession of technique and goal-setting activities, a focus on self-transformation in the process of interpersonal interaction. The main feature of the teaching position is behavioral flexibility. At the same time, emotionally rich relationships, their cognitive complexity can cause emotional burnout (emotional syndrome (A.N. Mokhovikov) or professional burnout (N.A. Aminov) [2]. Burnout syndrome is defined as a negative emotional state, or psychological exhaustion from prolonged stress created during the solution of pedagogical problems. Reduced emotional stress, anxiety, discomfort and preserve a positive self-image is achieved by implementing a system of psychological defense mechanisms. Acquisition of professional competencies provides a successful adaptation to the specific educational activities, promotes the selection of an adequate solution of the situation.

The results of practical activities, as well as targeted psycho-pedagogical studies indicate that professional self-improvement is always the result of conscious interaction of the student with a particular social environment in which it realizes the need to develop at such personal qualities that ensure success in academic, professional activities and life in general. Therefore, a professional self-improvement of students of pedagogical university can be seen as a conscious, deliberate process of raising the level of their professional competence and development of professionally significant qualities in accordance with the external social requirements, the conditions of professional and educational activities and the development of vocational and cognitive activity [7].

Thus, the complexity of the process requires a pedagogical support, which entails a reliance on a number of approaches to training in pedagogical high school. Thus, an integrated approach allows us to represent a complete picture of the professional environment, the specifics of the decision-making in the conditions of innovative educational activities. Cultural approach contributes to the selection of readiness diagnostic tools to pedagogical activity, awareness of personal limitations in the professional sphere. Personality oriented approach aims at developing methods of regulation of their activities, self-development and self-improvement. As a result, the pedagogical function of the adaptive system is realized, related to the development of abilities to adapt and reorient future teachers to work in a dynamically changing environment, to self-knowledge and self-improvement, which is a database of professional stability.

1. Ziyatdinova F.G. Social status and prestige of a teaching. M, 1992.

2. Differential psychodiagnostics of pedagogical styles N. A. Aminov [etc.]. M, 1997.

3. Kodzhaspirova G. M. Pedagogics: practical work and methodical materials. M, 2003.

4. Nikireev E.M. Orientation of the personality and methods of her research. M, 2004.

5. Rubenstein S. L. General psychology. SPb., 1999.

6. Sarsenbayeva B. I. Psychology of personal and professional self-improvement of future teachers: monograph. M, 2005.

7. Sergeeva B. V. Self-organization of professional and informative activity of future teacher of primary education. Modern high technologies. No. 12. 2015.

8. Serikov V. V. Education and personality. Theory and practice of design of educational systems. M, 1999.

Bibliographic reference

URL: www.science-sd.com/465-24999 (02.06.2023).