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Executive Editor:Publishing house "Academy of Natural History"
Editorial Board:
Asgarov S. (Azerbaijan), Alakbarov M. (Azerbaijan), Aliev Z. (Azerbaijan), Babayev N. (Uzbekistan), Chiladze G. (Georgia), Datskovsky I. (Israel), Garbuz I. (Moldova), Gleizer S. (Germany), Ershina A. (Kazakhstan), Kobzev D. (Switzerland), Kohl O. (Germany), Ktshanyan M. (Armenia), Lande D. (Ukraine), Ledvanov M. (Russia), Makats V. (Ukraine), Miletic L. (Serbia), Moskovkin V. (Ukraine), Murzagaliyeva A. (Kazakhstan), Novikov A. (Ukraine), Rahimov R. (Uzbekistan), Romanchuk A. (Ukraine), Shamshiev B. (Kyrgyzstan), Usheva M. (Bulgaria), Vasileva M. (Bulgar).
Economics
The interrelation of the land sizes of the entity and cost of intraeconomic transportations, determination of rational average distances of intraeconomic transportations and the sizes of agricultural enterprises finds reflection in works of many researchers of the end of the nineteenth century and practically economists throughout all twentieth century do not remain unattended. The model offered by us allows to consider all these features by optimization of parameters of the entity, and the criterion of optimization is in number determined as average from the ravnonapravlennykh of vectors in case of addition. For accounting of transportation costs it is necessary to estimate average distances of transportations. Intraeconomic transportations depend not only on the area, but also on a configuration of the parcel of land. Average distance for the same configuration of the parcel of land in case of identical placement of the economic center in direct ratio to a square root from the area (table 1).
Table 1– Average distances of an intraeconomic cargo transportation of specialized dairy farms, meters
Configuration of the parcel of land 
Formulas for calculation 
Farms with number of permanent employees, persons. 

3 
5 
10 

productivity of cows of 4500 kg 

Сircle 

209 
272 
387 
Hexagon 
0,377 
210 
273 
388 
Square 
0,383 
213 
277 
394 
Rectangle (1:3) 
0,475 
264 
344 
489 
productivity of cows of 5000 kg 

Сircle 

221 
287 
408 
Hexagon 
0,377 
222 
288 
410 
Square 
0,383 
225 
292 
416 
Rectangle (1:3) 
0,475 
279 
362 
516 
productivity of cows of 6000 kg 

Сircle 

234 
305 
434 
Hexagon 
0,377 
235 
306 
435 
Square 
0,383 
239 
311 
442 
Rectangle (1:3) 
0,475 
296 
386 
548 
Really average distances depend not only on a configuration and the area of the parcel of land, but also on placement of a road net, an arrangement of the economic center. The more land area of economy, the is more cost of intraeconomic transportations both counting on all economy in general, and per unit of the received product.
Those years optimization methods and modeling of economic systems have not been developed yet, and the first computers will appear three decades later and A. V. Chayanov, using graphical creations, algebraic transformations, finds the mathematical solution close to optimum values, offers interesting mathematical formulas for determination of the rational sizes of the agrarian entities taking into account costs for intraeconomic transportations. Modern models of optimization of parameters of the agrarian entities allow to include directly in model intraeconomic transportations as separate restriction.
In the options of a task of optimization of parameters of specialized dairy farms considered above the amount of intraeconomic transportations makes small size. So, in economy with three permanent employees it is necessary to transport 596 t of freight on average distance 264 meters. It will constitute 157 tkm. Costs for intraeconomic transportations even in case of adverse conditions will not exceed 786 rub, in case of the total amount of production costs – 480 thousand rubles that constitutes 0,16%.
In table 2 the characteristic of an intraeconomic cargo transportation is provided in specialized dairy farmings of optimum parameters in case of productivity of cows of 6 thousands kg a year. With increase in the sizes of the entity its land territory increases, the mass of the transported freights grows and the average distance of transportations increases. All this leads to significant increase in costs for an intraeconomic cargo transportation.
Table 2 – An intraeconomic cargo transportation in specialized dairy farmings of optimum parameters
Enterprise 
Farms with number of permanent employees, persons 
Area of agricultural holdings, hectare 
Average distance of transportations, m 
Mass of freights, t 
Amount of a cargo transportation, tkm 
Small 
3 
39 
296 
751 
222 
5 
66 
386 
1271 
491 

10 
133 
548 
2571 
1409 

Middle 
30 
380 
932 
6852 
6386 
50 
646 
1214 
11660 
14156 

100 
1313 
1731 
23681 
40991 

Large 
300 
3938 
2980 
71042 
211705 
500 
6603 
3860 
119124 
459819 
In all cases, the more land area of economy, the is more cost of intraeconomic transportations both counting on all economy in general, and per unit of the received product.
Change of costs for an intraeconomic cargo transportation counting on one cow and one hectare of agricultural holdings (table 3) is of interest.
Table 3 – Amounts of an intraeconomic cargo transportation in specialized dairy farmings, tkm
Enterprise 
Productivity of cows of 4500 kg 
Productivity of cows of 6000 kg 

in total 
counting on: 
in total 
counting on: 

1 cow 
1 hectares 
1 cow 
1 hectares 

Small 
169 
5,2 
5,4 
222 
7,1 
5,7 
373 
6,8 
7,1 
491 
9,2 
7,4 

1072 
9,7 
10,1 
1409 
13,1 
10,6 

Middle 
4831 
15,4 
16,0 
6386 
20,8 
16,8 
10723 
20,1 
20,8 
14156 
27,1 
21,9 

31019 
28,6 
29,7 
40991 
38,7 
31,2 

Large 
160318 
49,3 
51,1 
211705 
66,6 
53,8 
348054 
63,8 
66,2 
459819 
86,3 
69,6 
The productivity of animals, the bigger amount of an intraeconomic cargo transportation, with other things being equal, on the entity is higher. Actually it speaks simply – it is required to a highly productive cow more and the best forages. Or in a different way: it is possible to support by the best feeding the high level of productivity of cows. With increase in productivity of cows at each head the big fodder area is required, and the land territory of economy increases, so, also the amount of an intraeconomic cargo transportation on 1 hectare of the farmland increases.
For example, the area of economy with 500 permanent employees in case of productivity of 4500 kg constitutes 5259 hectares, and in case of productivity of cows in 6000 kg – already 6603 hectares. Also the structure of forages changes. But the main dependence here another – with increase in number of workers at economy grows a livestock of cows and amount of an intraeconomic cargo transportation. In smallscale enterprises the amount of an intraeconomic cargo transportation makes hundreds of tonkilometers, averages – tens of thousands, and in large – already hundreds of thousands of tonkilometers.
By the analysis it is established that in process of growth of the sizes of dairy farmings on land area amounts of an intraeconomic cargo transportation and costs for them increase. The specific weight of expenses on intraeconomic transportations increases in structure of product cost (table 4).
Table 4 – Expenses on an intraeconomic cargo transportation in specialized dairy farmings
Enterprise 
Farms with number of permanent employees, persons 
Expenses on intraeconomic transportations in % to production costs 

in case of a yield of milk of 4500 kg 
in case of a yield of milk of 6000 kg 

Small 
3 
0,2 
0,2 
5 
0,2 
0,3 

10 
0,3 
0,4 

Middle 
30 
0,5 
0,6 
50 
0,7 
0,8 

100 
1,0 
1,2 

Large 
300 
1,6 
2,1 
500 
2,1 
2,7 
In smallscale enterprises on one cow the amount of an intraeconomic cargo transportation makes up to 13 tonkilometers, in averages – from 15 to 40, and in large – from 50 to 90 tonkilometers. Similarly amounts of an intraeconomic cargo transportation and per one hectare of agricultural holdings change. So, in smallscale enterprises on one hectare of agricultural holdings an intraeconomic cargo transportation constitutes 510 tonkilometers, in averages – 1630 and 5070 tonkilometers in largescale specialized dairy farmings.
In smallscale enterprises specific weight of costs for intraeconomic transportations in total production expenses of economy insignificant also occupies less than a half of percent, in averages – increases up to one percent, and in large already increases to three percent. Increase in a share of expenses on intraeconomic transportations naturally eats a part of profit and interferes with production efficiency growth.
Modeling and optimization calculations are efficient tool means of the analysis of an economic situation and synthesis of optimal management decisions in agrarian and industrial complex.
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Burda A. G. MODELLING OF THE INTRAECONOMIC CARGO TRANSPORTATION BY OPTIMIZATION OF THE SIZES OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES. International Journal Of Applied And Fundamental Research. – 2016. – № 5 –
URL: www.sciencesd.com/46725091 (06.06.2023).